PPCA conference : 2014 Chicago

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.

150 Years Lifetime on PE-Piping Systems for Drinking Water, Can It Be Achieved?

Author(s) : Tomas Helenius, Karin Jacobson, Thomas Blomfeldt 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene is the leading material for new installation of drinking water pipes in Sweden. The material is recognized by the market as a flexible, light weight and an inexpensive solution. The material is ideal for water piping, however the lifetime is only guaranteed for 50 years. This is a problematic limitation...

1600mm PE Pipe Installation Saves Power Supply in Victoria, Australia

Author(s) : Dr Predrag Micic, Mr Gerald Beckton 2014 Chicago

The urgent diversion of a river through a rapidly constructed pipeline was required to avert a power supply crisis to the state of Victoria. In early June 2012, the Morwell River surged and a levee collapsed allowing the river to flow directly into the open cut coal mine which supplies the Yallourn power station. The...

A Risk Based Approach to Prioritizing Aldyl Piping Replacements in Gas Distribution Systems

Author(s) : Dr. Ken Oliphant, William Luff, Dr. Peter Angelo, Patrick Vibien 2014 Chicago

Managing aging pipeline infrastructure is an important part of overall pipeline risk management. The critical risk management questions for an aging infrastructure are: how quickly should replacement occur and what parts of the system should be prioritized for replacement. To answer these questions it is necessary to...

A Training and Certification Standard for Fusion Welding of PE Pipes

Author(s) : Edward Ingham, Mike Shepherd 2014 Chicago

Exova has previously demonstrated that under normal operating conditions PE 100 pipes would be expected to have a lifetime of over 200 years, but in the UK concerns have been reported about relatively high failure rates within the water utilities of fusion joints, particularly for large diameter pipes. For some time,...

Abraison Resistance Improvement of a High Density Polyethylene by Cross-Linking for Manufacture of Mine Tailings Transportation Pipes

Author(s) : Patricia Perdiz Fernandez, Miguel Angel Molano Niampira, Felipe Salcedo Galán, Felipe Álvarez Torres 2014 Chicago

Abrasion resistance is the ability of a material to withstand mechanical action such as rubbing, scraping, or erosion. Such ability helps to maintain the material's original appearance, structure and mechanical properties. It’s a decisive factor in the selection of materials for their use in mining pipe. Abrasive...

Active reinforcement for PE- electrofusion couplers/ Off-takes on large diameter PE mains

Author(s) : Alex Geringer 2014 Chicago

PolyethyIene pipes with their widely prized benefits, such as low weight, high flexibility and high pressure resistance to 16 bar, have become state of the art in dimensions up to d 630 mm (24”). Today, pipelines up to outer diameters of d 2000 mm (80”) or more are getting used frequently within different...

Advanced PE100 Grade with an Excellent Balance Between Durability and Processability

Author(s) : Tomomi Hiramoto, Tetsuya Yoshikiyo 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene has been used for various pipe applications. In particular the use of PE100 material has been expanding in pressure pipes for gas and water service. In general, PE100 materials have very high molecular weight component in order to improve the performance of durability, so they have high viscosity and...

Alternative Fast Methods to Evaluate the Long-Term Performance in Polyethylene Resins with High Resistance to Crack

Author(s) : Carlos Domínguez, Nuria Robledo, Rafael A. García 2014 Chicago

Slow Crack Growth (SCG) is the most critical failure mechanism in high density polyethylene used in pipe applications to determine the long-term performance of the resin. The most common methods for evaluating the SCG resistance are the Pennsylvania Edge Notched Tensile (PENT), Full Notch Creep Test (FNCT) and the...

An Assessment of the Approach to Validate Polyethylene Pipe in Potable Water Systems

Author(s) : Dr. Ken Oliphant, Patrick Vibien, Dr. Michael Conrad, Sarah Chung 2014 Chicago

A new methodology has been developed to validate the performance of polyethylene piping materials in potable water applications. The methodology is based on several research programs which examined a standardized accelerated test methodology (ASTM F2263 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Oxidative Resistance of...

An Evaluation of Aged MDPE Gas Pipes

Author(s) : Karen S. Lively, Pamela L. Maeger 2014 Chicago

Medium Density Polyethylene (PE80/PE2708 type) pipelines have been used globally in natural gas service applications for over 50 years. The condition of existing pipelines is critical to assessing existing infrastructures for utility operators and various regulatory bodies. This paper includes a review of the...

Analysing the Performance of Electrofusion Tapping Tees When Subject to Contamination

Author(s) : P. Tayefi, S.B.M Beck and R.A. Tomlinson 2014 Chicago

Electrofusion welding is a common jointing method for polyethylene (PE) pipe in the UK water industry. Here, electricity is used to heat a coil that melts the fitting and the host pipe of the same material. When the joint cools it forms a bond. However, premature failure of these can occur if best practice...

Analysis of Noise in Architectural Water Drainage Systems and the Application of Noise Reduction Technology

Author(s) : Li Yanjun 2014 Chicago

This article describes the general construction and different types of drainage system, including cast iron pipes and plastic pipes, plastic pipe commonly used are: hard PVC pipe (PVC-U), high density polyethylene pipe (PE-HD), polypropylene tube (PP), engineering plastics acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) and...

Analytical study of the mechanical behavior of gasket type: spike-bell

Author(s) : J. Cortes-Perez, S. V. Rivera-Cortés, N. García Castillo, A. Reyes S, R. Cornejo T 2014 Chicago

An analytical study about the mechanical behavior of pipes union system type: spike-bell-seal during hermeticity test is present. The analysis consist in develop a mathematical model of the gasket considering it, as a load transmission through elastic bodies which is a novel analysis procedure appropriate to solve...

Application of a Rapid LC-MS Technique to the Development of an Enhanced Chlorine Resistant Antioxidant Package for Polyethylene: Comparison to Oit and Resin Property Retention

Author(s) : Steven Horwatt, Randall Duderstadt, Douglas Keller, Sameer Mehta 2014 Chicago

The development of an antioxidant package for potential use in chlorine resistance of polyethylene pipe is a timeintensive exercise. Previous studies have shown that simple bench top experiments in the solution phase, coupled with LC-MS as a rapid tool for evaluating the analysis of antioxidant reaction products after...

Application of Plastics Pipe in Municipal Water Supply, China

Author(s) : Qing Qiao, Xiaoming Zheng, Shihu Shu 2014 Chicago

By the end of 2012, the overall length of China urban water supply pipeline reached at 481,485km of which plastic pipes accounted for 103,940km. This is equivalent to 21.6% of the network, which is an increase of 166% compared to 2006. During the period 2010-2015 China will invest 66 billion USD in the renovation and...

Benefits Gained Through Electronic Collection, Wireless Transmission and Analysis of Butt Fusion Joint Data

Author(s) : Vince King 2014 Chicago

In order to greatly reduce the risk of a compromised butt fusion joint in a plastic piping system, the ability to collect, analyze, and trace butt fusion data is becoming increasingly more important, and in many plastic pipeline specifications a mandated procedure. When the parameters and critical steps of the butt...

Bi-Directional Shift Factors Revisited

Author(s) : Ernest Lever 2014 Chicago

The Popelar bidirectional shift factors have been now been used about a quarter century to great effect. The question has been raised as to whether the shift factors are applicable to modern materials. GTI has been using rheological principles and Dynamic Thermo Mechanical Analysis (DTMA) to routinely develop...

Butt Fusion in Logistically Challenging Jobsites

Author(s) : Jason A. Lawrence 2014 Chicago

Traditional butt fusion technology relies upon high power electrical sources such as power grids or site generators to provide the power for facing operations, heating operations, and the required machine movements. Some jobsites, however, pose special challenges, such as remote location and the lack or unreliability...

Butt Welding of Big Pipe – Worldwide

Author(s) : Bernd Klemm 2014 Chicago

The article provides a detailed consideration of the process steps necessitating new solutions in comparison to the welding of pipes of medium diameters. Welders and planners can learn about a range of new solutions with which we have already worked successfully. This provides assistance with future...

Challenges and Solutions of a Difficult HDD Shot Employing Limited Capacity Equipment Resources

Author(s) : Frank W. O’Callaghan, Todd Randell 2014 Chicago

Building new pipeline infrastructure in highly congested urban environments is causing some interesting challenges for New Zealand engineers and construction companies, demanding innovative new pipeline solutions. The Birkdale area in the former North Shore City, now part of Greater Auckland City, New Zealand...

Characterization of Crack Initiation and Slow Crack Growth Resistance of PE100 and PE100-RC pipe Grades with Cyclic Cracked Round Bar Tests

Author(s) : Andreas Frank, Isabelle J. Berger, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter 2014 Chicago

During the past years the Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Test has been developed and meanwhile standardized as a new and modern test method for a quick material ranking of polyethylene pipe grades by their resistance against slow crack growth (SCG). As an additional benefit this test method allows a very precise...

Chemical and Temperature Resistance of Polyethylene Pipes for Industrial Applications

Author(s) : Dr. Amaia Bastero, David López Piquer 2014 Chicago

The industrial sector has traditionally used metal pipes for transporting a wide variety of chemicals and highly corrosive liquids. When metal pipes are exposed to aggressive media, their lifetime is considerably reduced. Polyethylene pipes, have demonstrated since the 1950s to be a safe, reliable and cost effective...

Comparison Between the Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) and Conventional Creep and Creep Rupture Tests on Polypropylene Used In Corrugated Drainage Pipe

Author(s) : Bill R. Vanhoose, Jarrett A. Nelson, Christa K. McNish, Richard W. Thomas 2014 Chicago

The Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) is a form of Time-Temperature Superpositioning (TTS) that involves measuring the creep rate of a sample while it is subjected to a series of isothermal temperature steps. The accelerated temperature results can then be shifted back to room temperature to produce a master-curve....

Comparison of Creep Rupture and Creep Modulus Data for High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene Pipe Resins Using Traditional and Accelerated Test Methods

Author(s) : Nicholas Piazza, Bill VanHoose, P.E. 2014 Chicago

In recent years, ASTM D6992 [1] has been and continues to be referenced as an acceptable test method for creep phenomenon in corrugated pipes. Example product specifications include AASHTO M330 [2], ASTM F2418 [3], ASTM F2736 [4], ASTM F2947 [5], ASTM F2764 [6], Washington DOT Standard Practice T 925 [7]....

Correlation of Fracture Mechanics Based Lifetime Prediction and Internal Pipe Pressure Tests

Author(s) : Gerald Pinter, Florian Arbeiter, Isabelle J. Berger, Andreas Frank 2014 Chicago

An extrapolation to static conditions for an accelerated fracture mechanics lifetime prediction of pressurized polyethylene pipes was conducted. The main objective of the current paper was to correlate predicted pipe lifetimes to real failure times determined with internal pipe pressure tests and to study the...

Cost Saving Solutions in Pipe Production

Author(s) : Rob G. Spekreijse, Johann Bryan 2014 Chicago

Producing PVC is a competitive market. Unless special products are produced like larger sizes or OPVC, the competiveness is important. Therefore the real issue becomes the saving of cost in producing pipe from PVC. There are many ways of saving costs and that issue must be considered in production companies making...

Cost Savings Through Quality Installations

Author(s) : Monica de la Cruz 2014 Chicago

Always important, but especially relevant in these times of cost cuttings, is to be aware of and to take into account all costs related to our activity. This paper discloses the contribution of the plastic pipes installation quality in the cost savings for our industry and customers. Generally, our clients only...

Countermeasures against Deterioration in Non-Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipes

Author(s) : Kazuhisa Igawa, Yuji Higuchi, Daisuke Tanemura, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Sakiko Fukunishi, Kazufumi Kohno, Hidekazu Honma, Hidekazu Sugimori 2014 Chicago

Recently, as awareness about energy-saving is increasing, high-efficiency energy systems have been developed and introduced. In addition, public and private sectors have simultaneously been implementing various efforts aiming to improve their prevalence rates. These initiatives are represented by the Cogeneration Gas...

Critical Flaw Size in Butt-Fusion Joints for Service Life Prediction of HDPE Pipes

Author(s) : P. Krishnaswamy, S. Kalyanam, Y. Hioe, D.J. Shim, E. Focht 2014 Chicago

There is a significant interest in the US nuclear industry to use HDPE piping in essential service water applications at commercial power plants. The unique challenges posed by the use of HDPE in safety-related applications have led to the recent activities in the plastics pipe industry, ASME Code Committees, and US...

Design Study on Wall Thickness and Structure of Polyolefin Socket Fusion Fittings

Author(s) : Tu Xiangqun, Wang Chao 2014 Chicago

Two kinds of comprehensions about the wall thickness of socket fusion fittings from GB/T 28799.3- 2012 have been analyzed in this paper. Socket wall thickness relative to the different value of pipe series of fusion fittings was calculated respectively, and two kinds of simplified calculation have been suggested. The...

Designing Against Rapid Crack Propagation in PVC Water Pipes

Author(s) : Frans Scholten, Ernst van der Stok, Jan Breen 2014 Chicago

Very occasionally PVC-U water pipes suddenly fail due to a long brittle crack with a length of many meters which propagates with the speed of sound along the pipe and causes extensive water loss. This phenomenon has been recognized as Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP). The conditions under which RCP can occur are an...

Designing Color Masterbatches to Meet the Demands of the Application

Author(s) : Andy Ethridge, Meril Maman, Dr. Markus Grob, White G. Jee 2014 Chicago

Color masterbatches or concentrates have been in use with plastic pipes as a means of color coding for identification of pipes by application. The color masterbatch contains not only color pigment(s), but also other ingredients that are necessary to protect the pipe during production and assure long-term durability....

Determining the Processing Quality of PVC Pipe by DSC – How Precise?

Author(s) : DALE B. EDWARDS, ANAND R. SHAH, DONALD E. DUVALL 2014 Chicago

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to study the processing of PVC pipes. This work has been largely embodied in ISO 18373-1-2007, Rigid PVC Pipes –differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method – Part 1: Measurement of the processing temperature and Part 2: Measurement of the enthalpy of fusion...

Developing new Multi-modal Polypropylene Random Copolymer (PP-R) pipe grades to meet new market needs

Author(s) : Antti Tynys, Cristian Hedesiu 2014 Chicago

In the Middle East propylene random copolymers (PP-R) are commonly used for heating, plumbing and domestic water systems in large, prestigious high rise buildings. These buildings may contain more than 60-80 floors and be over 300 metres in height, which demands many kilometres of pipe in sizes up to 160 mm in...

Development of a Slow Crack Growth Resistance (Strain Hardening) Test for Assessment of Ageing PE Pipeline Materials

Author(s) : Sonya Pemberton, David Chrystie-Lowe, Sabah Rafiq, Karolina Modelska, Edward Ingham 2014 Chicago

A room temperature tensile test using thin films taken from the outside and inside surface of polymer pipes has been developed to study the slow crack growth resistance of ageing PE pipelines via analysis of their strain hardening behaviour. A range of PE materials in service since the early 1970s and 80s are studied,...

Development of Large Diameter PP-B HM Corrugated Pipe in China

Author(s) : Li Xianmei, Fu Zhimin 2014 Chicago

Despite the increased activity over the last few years, sewage collection and treatment are still a critical problem in rural China which leads to further pollution of water sources and other environmental concerns. This creates a major market opportunity for cost effective plastic non pressure sewage and drainage...

Development of Pipe-Grade Polyethylenes with Enhanced Chlorine Resistance for Drinking Water Applications in NA

Author(s) : William J. Gauthier, LuAnn Kelly, William (Rusty) Wheat, Toby Stevens 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene pipe has been successfully used in potable water systems throughout the world since the 1960’s. In many countries, polyethylene is the material of choice. Water utilities and municipalities are increasingly demanding higher performance and lower cost options to build and maintain their water...

Development of the Ring Creep Test Method for Composite Pipes

Author(s) : Yuji Higuchi, Tomohiro Tanishita, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2014 Chicago

Recently, PE resin-back composite pipes have been developed in order to satisfy the higher requirements for gas and water distribution. Although the stress rupture test is now the major test method used to evaluate the long-term performance of these pipes, developing a new, convenient test method making it possible to...

Easy Branches : Avoid Pressure Derating for Fabricated Tees in Your Pipe System

Author(s) : Robert Eckert 2014 Chicago

New types of saddle fittings enable convenient and economic ways of installing branches or vents on PE pipes. In conjunction with a gate valve, branches can even be installed without disrupting service, by "hot tapping" the main pipe. In addition, pipes with localized damage such as excessively deep scratches or...

Energy-to-Failure to Assess the Quality of Electro Fusion Joints in PE Pipes

Author(s) : Frans Scholten 2014 Chicago

When electro fused joints in newly installed PE100 pipelines are tested using the Peel test (ISO 13954 [1]) they too often fail in a brittle manner. Contamination in the interface between the surfaces to be fused is usually the cause. About 77 % of the contaminants in 39 cases of brittle test bars could be identified...

EPCOR’s Continuing Success with PVC Water Main Pipe

Author(s) : Doug Seargeant, P. Eng. 2014 Chicago

Many utilities experience problems related to corrosion of buried metallic components of their water distribution systems. In seeking non-metallic alternatives to solve these problems, questions concerning the life expectancy of these alternatives are often raised. This paper describes testing of Poly Vinyl Chloride...

Essential Variables of Heat Fusion Joining of Polyethylene Pipe

Author(s) : Dr. Z. Jimmy Zhou, Jim Johnston 2014 Chicago

Heat fusion joining method has been widely used for thermoplastic piping materials such as polyethylene to form the “one-material” pipeline system. No additional 3rd party materials such as an adhesive are needed. The fusion procedures to ensure the quality of the joints could be different for different materials...

Evaluation of Plastic Pipes by Hot Water Circulation, Stress Rupture, and Immersion Tests

Author(s) : Kazuhisa Igawa, Yuji Higuchi, Akio Kamatani, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2014 Chicago

The polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) cogeneration system has been commercialized in Japan. The number of commercialized PEFC residential cogeneration systems have reached 100, 000 in total at the end of last year. The waste heat can be used for hot water supply and central heating. Hot water distribution pipes...

Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Composite Plastic Liners

Author(s) : Khalid Farrag 2014 Chicago

The paper presents a testing program for the evaluation of the long-term performance of composite structural liners for use in the rehabilitation of transmission and distribution liquid and gas pipelines. The paper first reviews previous research efforts, identifies the approach, and presents a testing program to...

Evolution of Piping Systems-A Brief History of Innovation

Author(s) : Riccardo Barbone, Georg Fischer 2014 Chicago

This short paper reviews the major milestones in the history of piping systems. A special emphasis is given to the sources and reasons for innovation. Starting with nature as a basis and discovering the basic laws of hydraulics, man has been driven to innovate by emulating nature. The political and social forces that...

Evolution of the Pipe Accelerated Notch Test – PANT-Method

Author(s) : Ph. Vanspeybroeck 2014 Chicago

As the resistance to notches of the new PE 100 RC materials continuously improves, the classical control methods - as mentioned in the product standards - of PE have to improve consequently. Indeed, the resin compound producers now have pipe qualities with notch resistance far beyond 1000 h. It was necessary to...

Exploring Boundries: Prolonged ISO 9080 Testing Revealing the Full Capabilities of PE-X

Author(s) : Stefan Dreckötter, Hugo Hammar 2014 Chicago

Plastic Materials have been used in the hot and cold water segment for many years. Cross linked materials in different pipe designs can be used for these applications e.g. under floor heating and sanitary installations. Due to the cross-linked polyethylene network, long-term properties like creep resistance, high...

Exploring the Japanese Market for Polyamide 12 Pipes

Author(s) : Yuji Higuchi, Kazuhiro Nishimoto, Takeshi Mise, Eiji Takenaka, Markus Hartmann 2014 Chicago

This study explores the Japanese market for polyamide 12 (PA12) pipes in terms of new product market success. To gain the market penetration, there are various entry barriers for the new product in the new market field which has big distance between current marketing areas and target country. In spite of becoming...

Flexible Plastic Solution for District Heating Network

Author(s) : Dr. Amaia Bastero 2014 Chicago

District heating networks are used to distribute the heat generated in a centralized location to residential and industrial areas. Today most of the district heating networks consist of steel insulated pipes. Flexible plastic pipes offer a suitable corrosion free alternative, with an easier and more cost effective...

Helping Abu Dhabi Achieve its Environmental Vision to “Green The Desert”

Author(s) : KumHoong Lou, Farraj Tashman, Dongyu Fang, Faisal Mohamed Khouri 2014 Chicago

“Greening the Desert” was the vision of the founding President of the United Arab Emirates, His Highness the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Today this vision is a reality because Abu Dhabi has planted 14 million trees in 250,000 hectares of forest, which are irrigated from 5,651 wells by a network of...

High Quality PE Pipe Systems and Local Partnerships – Key Elements in Undertaking Sustainable Development Project

Author(s) : Andrew Wedgner, Keith Etherington, Saad Idrees 2014 Chicago

Often plastics get a bad press due to poor quality products and the mishandling of plastic waste. But when high quality pipe systems are employed, they can significantly improve the lives of people living in poor communities around the world. The success and sustainability of such projects is also often down to...

Highlight on PVC Stabiliser for Pipes – Comparison and Trends

Author(s) : Dr. Udo Anders 2014 Chicago

PVC is a well-established material used worldwide for different applications such as window profiles, technical profiles, cables and sheets. Usage of PVC for pipes covers pressurized potable water applications as well as sewage systems, conduit, gas piping systems, gutters and fittings. Pb-based stabilizers have been...

How Transparent PVC-U Turns Green to Produce Food and Fuel

Author(s) : Dr. Stephan Schuessler 2014 Chicago

The production of biomass as an alternative source for organic feedstocks like nutraceuticals, fertilizers, monomers, pharmaceuticals, organic antioxidants, fine chemicals or even fuel has become a topic of enormous global interest among researchers, investors and the industry over the past five years. The concept of...

Influence of Additives on Structure and Property of Bimodal Polyethylene Pipe Material YGH041T

Author(s) : Qu Yunchun, Sun Xuhui, Chen Guokang 2014 Chicago

The polyethylene resin whose relative molecular mass distribution shows bimodal (Bimodal PE) possesses not only favorable mechanical property, but also excellent processing property. Currently, Borstar Technology of Borealis Company—loop slurry reactor and gas fluidized bed reactor install in series, which is...

Innovative Multi Layer Composite GSP Pressure Pipe

Author(s) : JINGDONG SHI, DEHUI LEE, STAR LEE 2014 Chicago

This article is to introduce the new designed plastic-steel-fiberglass composite pressure pipe (GSP pipe) for long distance water transportation, with max diameter 5000mm. This multimaterial composite pipe combines the steel hardness, PE anti-rust and fiberglass strength makes it long lifetime, higher pressure and...

Introducing PO Pipes into the Middle East – Rising to the Technical Challenges

Author(s) : Robert J Lawrence 2014 Chicago

In the Middle East the environment is exceptionally aggressive for all pipe systems due to the high temperatures, the high groundwater table and the very saline soils. This obviously makes metallic pipes and cement based pipes high risk options but it also poses challenges for polyolefin (PO). In this paper the author...

Joining Methods for Thermoplastic lined pipelines

Author(s) : Ted Compton, Jeff Schell 2014 Chicago

For decades, energy companies have used thermoplastic liners to protect pipelines from internal corrosion and abrasion. Liner systems can be a simple and cost effective means to extend the life of an asset and protect the environment. Many advances in technology have occurred over the years and thermoplastic liners...

Latest Technology in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP)

Author(s) : Conghua Gao 2014 Chicago

The reinforced thermoplastic pipe (RTP) is a new type of pipeline which has the unique advantages of flexibility,corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance. The superior properties of RTP are now being cognized in China and they are being selected as the best option .Meanwhile, oil and gas industry in Chinese market...

Lifetime Assessment of Polyethylene Pipes in Oil and Gas Infrastructure

Author(s) : P. F. Schoeffl, R.W. Lang 2014 Chicago

To accommodate the recent industrial interests to utilize PE-HD pipes for oil field applications (e.g. injection water pipes, flow lines), this paper introduces a “fully integrated test concept” to allow a comprehensive pipe lifetime prediction under severe environmental conditions. Moreover, experimental set-ups...

Liquid Crystal Polymer in the Manufacture of Plastic Pipes

Author(s) : Dongming yu, Linan Chen 2014 Chicago

This article is the impact study on general plastic pipe performance when using Liquid Crystal Polymer (hereinafter LCP) and LCP alloy, the soaking extrusion in-situ composite technique and the coat-molding technique for plastic pipe extrusion. It turns out that the high barrier property of TLCP can help us...

Live Load Fatigue Evaluation of Corrugated Pipes with Virgin and Recycled PE

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer 2014 Chicago

Corrugated HDPE pipes are an attractive product for culvert and drainage applications in the railroad industry due to their resistance to corrosion and abrasion, long service life, and flexibility. Currently, these pipes are required to be manufactured with 100% virgin materials. However, therail industryhas recently...

Long Term Creep Propterites of High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene Pipe Grade Resins Based on Specimen Preparation Method

Author(s) : Bill R. VanHoose, P.E., Crista K. McNish, Nicholas Piazza 2014 Chicago

Material properties used in design of various plastic products should be representative of those present in the finished product. Impacts of processing, cure time, environmental conditions, etc. can considerably influence material properties in finished goods. While taking test specimens directly from finished goods,...

Meeting the Need for Stiffer Large Diameter Plastics Pipes in China

Author(s) : Wang Liqun, Wu Gengtian, Qi Jun 2014 Chicago

In China demand is growing rapidly for large diameter plastic pipes due to urbanization and the need to protect the environment with improved storm-water management systems. Whilst plastic pipes are already used in China for underground sewage and drainage applications the properties and processing limitations of the...

Methodology to Determine Design Life of Assemblies of PE Pipe, Heat Fusion Fittings, and Heat Fusion Joints

Author(s) : Dr. Gene Palermo, Dr. Dane Chang, Dr. Jimmy Zhou 2014 Chicago

The scope of this paper is to provide information for the plastic piping industry on a test methodology that could determine the design life of heat fusion fittings and joints at the end user field conditions of operating stress, operating temperature and desired design life. This methodology is useful not only for...

Non Destructive Evaluation of Improper Fusion for Polyethylene Heat Fusion Socket Joint

Author(s) : Seonghee Kil, Jeongrock Kwon, Keebong Yoon 2014 Chicago

Non destructive evaluation(NDE) of polyethylene electrofusion socket joint could be a kind of methods to support the elelctro fusion processes and procedures. Defects example of lack of fusion, porosity, foreign material, inserting defect and dislocation of heating wires could be detected by using phase array...

Optimization Design of PVC Drainage Pipe Fittings

Author(s) : GUO BING 2014 Chicago

This paper introduces a method to improve the productivity of PVC drainage pipe fittings, by optimizing the structure of product and mould. This method has mainly three improvements compared with the conventional fitting production method: (1) delitescent sprue is applied for the plastic melt injection, therefore the...

PAS-55 / ISO 55000 As a New Asset Management Approach to Achieving Long-Term Reliability and Risk Reduction in Gas Distribution Pipelines

Author(s) : Dr. Ken Oliphant, Patrick Vibien 2014 Chicago

New and formal approaches to Asset Management (AM), such as the PAS-55 and ISO 55000 Asset Management standards have been developed over the past decade. These AM standards can be applied to pipelines and cover all stages of a pipeline's lifecycle - acquisition, operation, maintenance and renewal/disposal and provide...

PE-RT for Industrial and Oil & Gas Applications: New Opportunities with New Standard

Author(s) : Daniel Libert, Pierre Belloir 2014 Chicago

PE-RT is now well established in the Hot & Cold market with various pipe designs and associated standards. For many years, PE-RT has found a good place in Under Floor Heating applications in many places around the world. The comprehensive testing performed on raw materials led to a better knowledge of high...

PE100 and PE4710 Sourcing Components in a Global Market

Author(s) : Steve Sandstrum, Stephen Boros 2014 Chicago

As the technical performance and reliability of polyethylene pipe systems have grown, so too has the range of application and the complexities for designing and sourcing the variety of components necessary for these projects. In today’s global market, major industrial and/or municipal investments such as raw water...

PE100 Pipes Joining in Coalbed Methane Industry in China

Author(s) : Zhimin Xiong, Ruoqi Wei 2014 Chicago

Being the largest coal production and consumption country in the world, China is also rich in coalbed methane (CBM) resources, and coalbed methane development was greatly expanded in the recent two years. In the course of this advancement, a solid joint was made between PE100 pipes and coalbed methane industry. PE100...

Performance Evaluation of Notched PE80/PE3608 Pipe Using Ligament Stress Regression Methodology

Author(s) : Dr. Z. Jimmy Zhou, Dr. Dane Chang 2014 Chicago

External flaw could be introduced into pipe wall during the transportation, installation and service processes of polyethylene pipe. The performance of non-flawed pipe is well addressed by both the standard stress extrapolation methods specified in ASTM D 2837 and ISO 9080. However, there are very limited data for...

Performance of Polyethylene Pipes with Glass Fiber

Author(s) : M.Tokiyoshi, H.Kudo, M.Endo, K.Inoue, N.Shibasaki, T.Nakayama, H.Matsukuma, M.Kodera, Y.Niinomi, M.Masuko, P.Vanspeybroeck 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene pipes are successful worldwide due to the superior performance (Flexibility, light weight, lifetime, tighten joint) for water and sewerage supply. However according to our ISO standard concerned Polyethylene pipes we have to use solid wall pipe with too thick against for internal pressure. The major job...

Pipeline Performance Experiences during Seismic Events in New Zealand over the Last 27 Years

Author(s) : Frank W. O’Callaghan 2014 Chicago

Functioning pipeline systems are a cornerstone of urban human communities, to bring in the clean water on demand for drinking, washing and sanitary needs, and in turn remove the used water from drains, waste, and stormwater sources. If the pipe system is suddenly rendered non-functional, such as by seismic event;...

Plastic Pipes Used in the Steel Pickling Industry

Author(s) : Daniel Ejdeholm, Karin Jacobson 2014 Chicago

Since decades, non-metallics have been the preferred choice of material to be used in the process equipment of pickling plants to cope with the metal-corrosive environments. The present experience regarding the corrosion performance of different plastic materials in various pickling applications and elsewhere has...

Plastic Sheet Material: an Excellent Protection of PVC Pipes Against UV-Degradation

Author(s) : MSc. J. Weller, R.J.M. Hermkens 2014 Chicago

More than 75,000 km of PVC pipes are currently in use for the distribution of natural gas in The Netherlands, which make up over 60% of the distribution grid. To gain insight in the factors that influence the quality of those pipes a so called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004. Part of this programme...

Plough-in of Large Diameter Polyethylene Pipes

Author(s) : Alan Whittle, Jim Campbell 2014 Chicago

The coal seam gas industry in Australia is currently undergoing a major expansion with over 50,000 km or 30,000 mile of PE100 pipes to be installed in diameters ranging from DN110 to DN710. The pipes are being used to carry produced water, gas and treated water. The considerable quantity of pipe to be installed in...

Polyamide (PA11 and PA12) Use in High Pressure Natural Gas Distribution Systems – Installations and Performance Review

Author(s) : Dennis Jarnecke 2014 Chicago

The natural gas industry has long understood the advantages associated with plastic piping materials. In addition to being easier to handle and join, plastic piping materials eliminate the need for long-term corrosion control and the associated costs. Since the mid-1990’s, there has been an on-going effort to...

Polyethylene Pipe Repair

Author(s) : Dennis Jarnecke, Tony Kosari 2014 Chicago

The purpose of this research was to conduct a thorough evaluation of a structural reinforcing system (patch) for the repair and/or reinforcement of mechanically damaged polyethylene pipes in an effort to establish permanency of the repairs and determine the life expectancy. MDPE and HDPE pipe specimens with machined...

Polyolefin Sewer Pipes – 100 Year Lifetime Expectancy

Author(s) : Tiem Meijering, Jeannette Mulder, Günter Dreiling, Heinz Vogt 2014 Chicago

In this study, it has been demonstrated that a 100 years service-lifetime for non-pressure sewage pipes, solid wall pipes and structured-wall pipes of PE and PP, can be expected provided some basic conditions are met. It has been demonstrated that the resistance to thermo-oxidative degradation of the applied materials...

Polypropylene Multi Layer Pipe Lifetime Assessment Under Realistic Loading Conditions

Author(s) : Florian Arbeiter, Martin Ševčík, Gerald Pinter, Frank Andreas, Pavel Hutař 2014 Chicago

Multi-layer pipes made from polypropylene have been widely used in sewerage applications for several years. Due to good material properties and generally low mechanical loads not many critical failures occur. Aim of this work is to determine, whether slow crack growth, consisting of crack initiation and crack growth,...

Prediction of Long Term Performance of Polyolefin Pipes in Contact with Chlorine Dioxide as Disinfectant

Author(s) : Karin Jacobson 2014 Chicago

This paper discusses the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of polyolefin pipes in chlorine dioxide. Studies of random co-polymer polypropylene, PP-R pipes that have been exposed in service connected to ClO2 disinfection systems are compared to data generated at accelerated laboratory conditions. The test...

Prediction of residual lifetimes of small diameter polyethylene pipes

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank, David Nitsche, Andreas Riha, Gerald Pinter 2014 Chicago

Within this paper the property and lifetime profile of four small diameter PE water pipes for house supply, which were installed between 1968 and 1992 in Vienna and Graz, Austria, were studied. Based on thermo analytical and structure analytical test methods the materials show still expected values for PE even after...

PVC – Review of Available Technologies for Trenchless Pipeline Applications

Author(s) : Nigel Jones 2014 Chicago

PVC is clearly widely known as a material highly suited for trenched or open-cut pipe installations for a variety of uses. Less widely discussed is the fact that PVC offers the widest range of options for trenchless installations. While open-cut installations continue to be the standard method of construction for new...

PVC-O Fittings

Author(s) : Dolores Herran 2014 Chicago

MOLECOR introduces for the first time in North America, PVC-O FITTINGS. One of the missions of technological companies is to adapt and adopt market demands. Molecor is definitely doing so by developing its technology towards big diameters and high pressures, now being available DN 30” (811,8 mm) and 365 psi (25...

PVC-O: Expanding in Technology and Application

Author(s) : André Nijland, Frans Alferink 2014 Chicago

PVC-U is used around the globe for potable water supply and sewer applications. This is due to its strength and stiffness as well as to its excellent flow properties. PVC-U shows an excellent performance in protecting the potable water quality. And it is registered that failure rates of PVCU pipelines are very low....

PVC4Pipes Training and Presentation Packages - 2014

Author(s) : GREINER Jean-François, TAN Steve, WALMSLEY Alastair 2014 Chicago

In order to make it easy for the PVC pipe manufacturers to train their sales forces in a professional and consistent way across Europe and to give them a set of clear reference data, PVC4Pipes has taken a first initiative in developing a Training Toolkit, a set of Power Point slides, which provide information about...

Rapid Crack Propagation – Observations of Critical Pressure and Critical Temperature Relationships of Polyethylene Pipes

Author(s) : Ashish M. Sukhadia, Mark J. Lamborn, Pam L. Maeger 2014 Chicago

Over the past several years, we have conducted extensive investigations of the Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) behavior of Polyethylene (PE) pipes. While the typical data of interest is the Critical Pressure (Pc) and/or Critical Temperature (Tc), we chose to take our investigations further by exploring and generating...

Reducing Engineering Complexity of Large Diameter Close Fit Polyethylene Liner Installation

Author(s) : Derek Muckle 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene pipe is being routinely used for the close fit lining of large diameter water trunk mains, with the twin objectives of improving water quality and reducing losses due to leakage. Trunk mains serve large urban areas and by definition are large diameter pipes; examples of real lining schemes in the past 12...

Remaining Life Expectancy and Risk Profile of Vintage Aldyl A Piping

Author(s) : Ernest Lever 2014 Chicago

Aldyl A piping systems are closing in on fifty years of service in North America. Several North American gas utilities are assessing the remaining lifetime expectancy of their Aldyl A piping systems and preparing replacement programs. GTI has been actively involved in multiple research efforts related to Aldyl A...

Renovation of Old Water Pipeline and Case Study in China

Author(s) : Xiao Lei, Cheng Liang, Fang Dongyu 2014 Chicago

The renovation of old water pipes in a big city, such as Shanghai in China, is always a challenging job due to huge population, heavy traffic and high demand for drinking water. Due to these problems No-Dig technology has become common practice, particularly relining using plastic pipes, to repair corroded metallic or...

Required Engineering Properties for High Density Polyethylene Pipe Utilizing Recycled Materials

Author(s) : John M. Kurdziel, P.E. 2014 Chicago

A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years for the development of sustainable products with zero waste. At the core of many of these discussions has been the utilization of recycled plastics. One of the largest outlets or utilization of recycled thermoplastics, specifically high density polyethylene...

Research on Application of PE Pipelines in Dredging Field

Author(s) : Jing Faqi 2014 Chicago

The paperpresentsa study on the velocity distribution and pipe wear under various situations.The study is based on two-fluid model and fluid boundary conditions. The pilot test wascarried out in Guangzhou. The abrasion of HDPE pipe under different conditions was seen.Other comparisons to steel pipes included abrasion...

Selection of a Load Level for Testing to Determine the Creep Modulus of Thermoplastic Corrugated Wall Pipe for AASHTO LRFD Thermoplastic Pipe Design

Author(s) : Jesse L. Beaver 2014 Chicago

The design of corrugated wall thermoplastic pipes requires evaluation of loads applied to the pipe upon installation and those applied to the pipe throughout its service life. For loadings that are characterized as dead loads, the thermoplastic pipe will experience creep and/or relaxation for the duration of the...

Sewer Installation Time – Comparing PVC with concrete

Author(s) : Peter Verlaan 2014 Chicago

Several scientific studies underline benefits that plastic sewers have over traditional materials like clay and concrete. A few scientific studies which confirm that statement are for example: Teppfa SMP project The SMP [explanation?] project showed that plastic systems have 75% fewer leaks than concrete. The full...

Standardisation Driving the Success of Polyethylene Pressure Piping Systems

Author(s) : S H Beech, P Belloir, C Salles 2014 Chicago

Plastics piping systems are specified against a relevant standard, giving dimensions, essential performance requirements, the design basis for pressure rating, and testing to prove fitness for purpose, giving the end user the confidence to use these systems. The plastics pipes industry has successfully developed...

Standardization of Data Capture for Fusion Operations

Author(s) : Dennis Jarnecke 2014 Chicago

The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published the final rule establishing integrity management requirements for gas distribution pipeline systems on December 4, 2009 (Distribution Integrity Management Programs - DIMP). The regulation requires operators, such as natural gas distribution...

Steel Wire Reinforced Thermoplastics (PE) Composite Pipe Cross Sea Laying Technology

Author(s) : Tang Guoqiang, Wang Wei 2014 Chicago

This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of steel wire reinforced thermoplastics (PE) composite pipe structure, domestic and foreign sea crossing pipeline laying method, methods and their advantages and disadvantages, welding installation of steel wire reinforced thermoplastics (PE) composite pipe laying...

Stormwater Boxes – A Solution for Climate Change Impact on Water Management

Author(s) : Martina Sandholzer, Michael Jerabek, Christophe Salles, Günter Dreiling 2014 Chicago

Due to the combination of climate change impact, resulting in many regions of the world having a heavier and unpredictable rainfall, together with increased urbanization, the possibility for lower natural infiltration of the water into the soil has created a real challenge for storm water management systems. Forecast...

Study on Structural Integrity of Plastic Inspection Chambers

Author(s) : Zhang Wei, Wei Ruoqi, Zhou Minghong, Zhou Mingwei, Lin Baoshu, Xiao Lingli 2014 Chicago

The plastic inspection chamber is one of the rapidly developing products in the field of drainage in China for the past few years. At present, plastic inspection chamber is mainly made of PP, PE, PVC and so on. The manufacturing technologies include injection molding, rotational molding, mechanical assembly and...

The Current Situation of China Plastic Pipe Industry and Market Opportunities for Further Economic Development in the Future

Author(s) : Wang Zhanjie, Zhao Yan, Melody Guo 2014 Chicago

In recent years, the Chinese plastic pipe industry has maintained a high growth rate and in 2012 the production of plastic pipe in China amounted to over 11 million tons. This not only provides important benefits due to the outstanding performance of plastic pipe, such as corrosion resistance, smooth wall, easy...

The Effects of Dual Cooling on the Rapid Crack Propagation Performance of Polyethylene Pipes

Author(s) : Mark J. Lamborn, Pam L. Maeger, Rick E. Kunc, Vivek Rohatgi, Paul J. DesLauriers, Ashish M. Sukhadia 2014 Chicago

Dual cooling is a post-extrusion cool down process employed for polyethylene (PE) pipe, whereby either water or ambient air is forced through the pipe bore following extrusion, in order to accelerate cooling. The primary benefits offered by the dual cooling process are increased production rates and reduced resin...

The Environmental Footprint of Plastic Pipe Systems Within the Built Environment

Author(s) : Carolin Spirinckx, Sándor Aranyi, Zoran Davidovski, Karolien Peeters, Claudia Topalli 2014 Chicago

The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) deem it important to have an insight into the integral environmental burdens encountered during the life-span of particular plastic pipe system applications within the built environment. With this framework in mind, TEPPFA has set up a project with the...

The Impact of Heavy Hydrocarbon Permeation on PE Pipe

Author(s) : Karen Crippen, Ernest Lever 2014 Chicago

DOT/PHMSA held a Government/Industry Pipeline R&D Forum on July 18-19, 2012. Five working groups met to discuss key pipeline technical challenges facing industry and government. The Design/Materials/Welding-Joining & Valves working group identified the effects of hydrocarbon permeation on plastic pipe strength...

The Influence of Additive Levels on PE-Xa Pipe Performance

Author(s) : Zhang SiLiang, Zhang ShuangQuan, Guo XiaoLing, Ren YunHong, Wang MingKe 2014 Chicago

This article describes the effect of additive, light and high temperature on PE-X pipe’s performance. By additive amount changes, will be have different influence to pipe’s brittleness resistance, bending strength, and aging resistance. As cross-linking agent’s content increasing, bending strength enhanced, but...

The Rapid Spread of Large Diameter PO Pipes in the Middle East and Asia

Author(s) : Mohamed Hageb, Roger Jepson, Mohana Murali 2014 Chicago

Throughout the financial crisis in the West, governments and businesses in the Middle East and Asia have continued to invest in industry confident that low labour costs or low feedstock and mineral costs would ensure that they remained competitive. Also many large water and wastewater projects have been continued,...

The Resistance to Impact of Unplasticized Polyamide 12 (PA-U 12) Pipes

Author(s) : Sergio Kempenich, Markus Hartmann, Carsten Schuett, Ralf Tuellmann, Daniel Crucello, Vitor Lavini 2014 Chicago

Unplasticized Polyamide 12 (PA-U 12) has been investigated as an alternative to steel for high pressure gas installations with operation pressures up to 18 bar (261 psi). Several tests developed and conducted in Germany, USA and Brazil have reached positive results in terms of performance and costs. However, Brazilian...

The VinylPlus label for sustainable plastic piping systems

Author(s) : Zoran Davidovski 2014 Chicago

VinylPlus is the new 10 year sustainability commitment of the PVC value chain in Europe, built around five challenges for the sustainable future of PVC in our society. An important target within Challenge 5 - “Sustainability Awareness” is the market launch of a product label by 2013. This document contains the set...

The “Notched Cylindrical Bars Under Constant Load Test” (NCBT) as a Means to Assess the Resistance to Crack Initiation and to Slow Crack Growth of PE100 and PE100 RC

Author(s) : GUEUGNAUT Dominique, BOUJLAL Adil, BOUAFFRE Romuald, LOPITAUX Aymeric 2014 Chicago

The emergence of a new generation of PE100, named PE100 RC, with a significant enhanced Slow Crack Growth (SCG) resistance enlights the need for new testing methods in order to be able to test such resins in reasonable test durations. Consequently in the last five years some new tests have been designed to assess for...

Thermally Fused PVC Pipe Helps Accelerate Adoption of Trenchless Pipe Installation Techniques in North America

Author(s) : Tom Marti, Richard (Bo) Botteicher 2014 Chicago

In North America, trenchless pipe installation methods continue to see rapid adoption in municipal markets with well over 70 percent of utilities having used some form of trenchless methods in the recent past according to a 2012 survey. This adoption rate is a function of improving equipment, installation experience,...

Tracking and Traceability in Plastic Gas Distribution Systems-Changes and Challenges in Technology

Author(s) : Randall J. Knapp 2014 Chicago

The “Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement and Safety Act of 2006” required the Department of Transportation (DOT) to establish a regulation prescribing standards for integrity management programs for distribution pipeline operators. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)...

Two Complementary Tests to Determine the Quality of PE 100RC

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok, Frans Scholten 2014 Chicago

The Strain Hardening (SH) test and the Point Load Test (PLT) are two complementary tests designed to determine the quality of PE 100-RC. The SH test is a resin test, whereas the PLT is a pipe test. The SH test is a tensile test performed at 80 °C. Extensive research on the SH test has been conducted and published in...

Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection of Polyethylene Pipelines & Fittings Used for Gas Distribution

Author(s) : GUEUGNAUT Dominique, ANGELINI Florent, BOUJLAL Adil, BOUAFFRE Romuald, SEVRE Bertrand, LOUET Patrick 2014 Chicago

Polyethylene (PE) is a widespread material for the manufacturing of gas and water distribution pipelines and a large number of PE electrofusion pipe joints can be found over the thousands of kilometres of PE pipeplines all over the world, thus generating an increasing interest in checking the quality of these joints....

Unlocking New Applications: PP-RCT for Demanding Skyrise Buildings

Author(s) : Christophe Salles, Christoph Stamm, Hugo Hammar 2014 Chicago

Traditional piping materials e.g. metals are becoming outdated due to their high weight, difficult handling and questionable performance over time. These are only a few of the reasons why plastics have rapidly become the preferred pipe material over the last few decades. PP-RCT (PolyPropylene Random Crystalline...

Validation of the Long Life of PVC Pipes

Author(s) : Steven Folkman 2014 Chicago

Several analytical studies have estimated that PVC pipe can have a useful life of over 100 years. The earliest widespread use of PVC pipes was in Germany in the late 1930’s. These early pipes lacked proper extrusion technology. Extrusion technology was greatly developed during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Use of PVC...

Very High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Resins with Improved Chemical and Abrasion Resistance

Author(s) : Dr. Dane Chang, Dr. David Marshall, Chris Cox 2014 Chicago

Plastic pipe applications often require polymers to have adequate abrasion resistance during usage. Although typical polyethylene resins have reasonably good resistance to abrasion and can be broadly used with a variety of chemicals, there are some demanding applications that require a resin with enhanced abrasion and...



Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
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