PPCA conference : 2001 Munich

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.

e-Business, Does it Apply to Plastic Pipes?

Author(s) : THOMAS W DAVIES 2001 Munich

The discussion concerns e-business and if it applies to manufacturers of plastic pipes. In a business world companies objectives are predominantly centred around three areas, retaining customers, improving efficiencies and expanding markets. Plastic pipe manufacturers are no exception and the benefits of e-business...

A Method for Assessing the Long-Term Strength of Unplasticized Poly Fittings

Author(s) : Paschal, Ciechanowski 2001 Munich

Fittings used in water and gas piping systems are rarely, if ever, explicitly rated for load carrying capability relative to internal pressure. In some cases the material or resin used to manufacture the fitting is stress-rated to a period of 100,000 hours (PPI TR3) or 50 years (ISO TR 9080 and FDIS 9080). This...

A More Reliable Detergent for Cone and Full Notch Creep Testing of PE Pipe Materials

Author(s) : Scholten, Gueugnaut, Berthier 2001 Munich

Detergents of the type nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) are often used in PE pipe tests at 80°C like the Full Notch Creep Test, Cone test and Constant Load test. However, evidence is presented that this class of detergents is very vulnerable to oxidation by oxygen from the air surrounding the tests baths. This leads to a...

A Study of the Solvent Cement Bond for PVC and ABS Pipe Joints

Author(s) : Tjandraatmadia, Burn 2001 Munich

To increase understanding of chemical jointing in pipes, the strength of solvent cement joints in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipes was investigated, using mechanical tests and morphology studies. The strength of solvent cement increases with curing time, and it was found that...

An Alternate Method for Determining the Hydrostatic Design Basis for Plastic

Author(s) : Edwards, Broutman, Choi 2001 Munich

The Alternate Methods Committee of the Plastics Pipe Institute’s Hydrostatic Stress Board (HSB) has completed development of an alternate method for determining the hydrostatic design basis (HDB) for plastic piping materials. The initial work was reported at Plastic Pipes X, in Sweden in 1998.1 An ASTM test method...

Applicability and Limitations of Current Life-Time Prediction Models for Thermoplastics Pipes Under Internal Pressure

Author(s) : Lang, Pinter, Stern 2001 Munich

Engineering polymers, in particular special grades of poly(ethylene) (PE), are gaining importance in many pipe applications with targeted service lives of several decades. To ensure proper performance of such pipes over the required lifetime, polymer physics and mechanics concepts are needed which adequately account...

Application Orientated Material Development for Close-Fit-Relining Pipes

Author(s) : Brunecker 2001 Munich

The use of the no-dig method of renovating waste water sewer pipes is becoming steadily more common in the area of sewer systems, in spite of ever declining budgets.But maybe for this very same reason, other contemporary terms such as “pipeline integrity” are also becoming more important. Against this background,...

Assessing Material Performance in Chlorinated Potable Water Applications

Author(s) : Vibien, Couch, Oliphant, Zhou, Zhang, Chudnovsky 2001 Munich

The chlorine present in potable water as a disinfectant has been reported to reduce the lifetime of some plumbing system components. In this study the nature of the failure mechanism of a commercial cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe material exposed in the laboratory to chlorinated potable water is examined. The...

Assessment of the Strength and Toughness of Modified PVC Pipes

Author(s) : Whittle,Burford, Hoffmann 2001 Munich

A series of modified PVC pipes, with different concentrations of chlorinated polyethylene, were manufactured under carefully controlled processing conditions. The strength and toughness of each pipe was measured by a variety of methods including uniaxial tensile strength, notched C-ring, essential work of fracture,...

Butt Fusion Welding of Large Diameter/Thick Wall Pipes

Author(s) : Hill, Wilson, Headford 2001 Munich

Butt fusion welding is the most reliable and unobtrusive method of joining PE pipes (and spigot fittings) of virtually any size-except perhaps the smallest where other methods are usually preferred. It is the dominant method of jointing both medium and large pipe sizes, but for different reasons. In medium pipe sizes...

Cable Drawing Trough Deformed Plastic Ducts

Author(s) : Fairfield, Reid, Hounsome, Edwards, Sibbald 2001 Munich

This paper provides estimates of the draw force needed to pull sub-ducts or cables through a series of typical ducted utility networks. Variables such as : coefficient of friction between the outside of the cable and inside of the duct, the main duct’s vertical diameter, the cable bundle or sub-duct’s...

Comparison of Thermoplastic Close-Fit Liner Systems for the Renovation of Pipelines

Author(s) : Glanert 2001 Munich

Fold and form procedures for the trenchless renovation of gravity drainage pipe systems have been used throughout the world since the late eighties. Fold and form procedures are classified as renovation by the European Committee for Standardization CEN. OmegaLiner®, a product combining the advantages of comparable...

Complex Yield Behaviour of PE100 Resin on Plane Strain Tensile Specimen

Author(s) : Choi, Lee, Broutman, Edwards, Palermo, Cho, Choi, Park 2001 Munich

In recently designated plane strain grooved tensile (PSGT) methodology of ASTM F2018 standard, a groove in the direction perpendicular to the loading axis allows biaxial stress state to be generated under a uniaxial loading. The biaxial stress state produced very closely approximates the internally pressurized pipes...

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Long-Term Mechanical Properties of PE100 Resins Meeting the Requirements of Modern Installation Techniques

Author(s) : Laurent 2001 Munich

The development of improved toughness properties of PE pipe resins agrees with the implementation of modern PE pipe installation technologies. Especially the increased resistance to Stress Cracking and to Slow Crack Growth allows contemplation of improved economics, longer lifetime and higher safety. However the...

Creep and Fatigue Crack Growth in a Pipe Grade PVC Material

Author(s) : Balika, Lang 2001 Munich

The creep crack growth (CCG) and the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviour of a commercial pipe grade PVC material was studied based on a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) methodology. The FCG tests were performed under sinusoidal load control at a frequency of 5 Hz and at R-ratios (Fmin/Fmax) of 0.1, 0.3 and...

Development and Testing of Magnetic Detectable PE Pipe

Author(s) : Jarnecke, Mamoun 2001 Munich

Magnetic detectable polyethylene (PE) pipe has been developed for the gas distribution system that has permanent detection for locating underground piping. Magnetic detectable PE pipe differs from normal PE pipe by the addition of magnetic particles in the PE resin, which are magnetized in a sinusoidal pattern during...

Development of High-Pressure Plastic Materials for Gas Distribution Pipeline Systems

Author(s) : Sudheer, Pimputkar, Michael, Mamoun 2001 Munich

A new plastic piping material to augment and complement polyethylene (PE) (and newer materials such as Polyamide 11 and cross-linked PE) and extend the use of plastics to highpressure distribution piping is being developed. The scope of work consists of identification and laboratory testing of candidate materials, and...

Development of Steel Mesh Reinforced Plastic Composite Pipe and Investigation

Author(s) : Sun, Niu, J.Sun 2001 Munich

Steel mesh reinforced plastic composite pipe, possessing advantages of both metal and plastics, is a new type pipe that made a perfect combination of steel wire mesh and thermoplastics. A general description of characteristics of pipe structure, production process, pipe performance analysis and model projects of...

Development of the Pipeline Renovation Market in Poland as Illustrated by Compact

Author(s) : Wroblewska, Kwietniewski, Roszkowski 2001 Munich

The condition of underground infrastructure in Poland at the beginning of the 1990s was very poor. The length of the water supply, sewage and gas network was relatively small, compared with Western Europe, and the installation materials used at the times of socialism were of very low quality; the same can be said...

Developments of Flowstop Systems for Large Diameter PE Mains

Author(s) : Morgan, Hill 2001 Munich

Transco, part of the Lattice Group, is the largest Public Gas Transporter in Great Britain. It currently operates a Distribution system of some 250,000 kilometers. Developments in polyethylene pipe technology have led to an ongoing increase in the size of pipe being laid in the U.K. Currently, pipes up to 630 mm...

Ductile Failure and Delayed Necking in PE

Author(s) : Jivraj, Sehanobish, Dun, Damen, Wu, Zhou, Chen, Shulkin, Chudnovsky 2001 Munich

Analysis of polyethylene (PE) pipes ductile failure (ballooning) suggests that it is directly related to the delayed necking phenomena and time to ductile failure of PE pipe can be evaluated as the time to delayed necking. The necking in polyethylene (PE) is studied under displacement control (ramp test) and load...

Dynamar Fluoropolymer Processing Additives in Applications of HDPE Pipes

Author(s) : Papp, Steve, Amos, Briers 2001 Munich

Fluoropolymer based polymer processing additives (PPAs) are frequently used in the polyethylene industry. Besides their ability to eliminate melt fracture and die build-up, PPAs are used to optimise the process conditions in a wide range of applications without having to make compromises on the properties of the final...

Effect of Pipe Ovality on Service Tee Reliability and Equipment and Technology

Author(s) : Campbell, Reyes, Rush, James 2001 Munich

This paper summarizes work that was undertaken to improve coiled pipe operations. Two different technical issues were addressed. The first is to improve the reliability and lower cost of gas mains by understanding the effects of excess ovality in plastic gas pipe. The second is to improve the handling of plastic pipe...

Effects of Liberalising the European Market for Water

Author(s) : Jones 2001 Munich

This paper provides an overview of the evolving Liberalisation process in the context of the European Water sector. The underlying drivers are outlined from the perspective of EU member countries, the EU Commission and the broader international situation. The importance of the Liberalisation process in the balance of...

Elastomeric Pipe Joint Performance Requirements for Use in PVC Sewer Pipelines

Author(s) : Sadler, Burn, Whittle 2001 Munich

Root intrusion into sewer pipelines is a major concern, especially in areas with a combination of dry climate and vigorous vegetation growth. For elastomeric pipe joints to resist root intrusion, some national standards specify a minimum interfacial pressure that must be maintained between the elastomeric ring and the...

Electrofusion Joint Strength of PE Pipes

Author(s) : Nishimura, Inoue, Inoue, Tani, Higuchi 2001 Munich

Electrofusion (EF) joints have been widely used as easy-to-fuse and high-quality joints for joining polyethylene (PE) pipes. When we introduced EF joints 150 mm or more in diameter, an electrofusion simulation program was concurrently developed to reduce time for design and experimental works. It was verified that the...

Ensuring the Highest Quality in PE 100 Pressure Piping Materials

Author(s) : Scheelen, Tauber, Berndtson, Lackner, Bertrand, Bilda 2001 Munich

Founded on February 24, 1999, the PE100+ Association is an industry organisation of several polyethylene (PE) manufacturers whose objective is to guarantee consistent quality at the highest level in the production and use of PE 100 pipe material. The authors describe the current situation in terms of European...

Examinations Concerning the Squeeze-Off of Pipes Made of PE 80, PE 100 And PE-Xa

Author(s) : Wuest 2001 Munich

This paper is about the squeeze-off tests on pipes made of PE 80, PE 100 and PE-Xa of different dimensions. After having squeezed off the pipes to a rate of 0.8 the air and water impermeability of the squeezed point is examined at different pressures and the leakage rates are determined. After reforming the pipe...

Examining the Performance of Semi-Structural Pipe Liners

Author(s) : Crunkhorn, Smith, Whiter, Mulheron 2001 Munich

Cast iron pipes have been loaded to failure using a four point bending geometry under displacement-controlled loading. Specimens were tested with various liner configurations : unlined, epoxy resin lined or lined with one of two interactive (semi-structural) liners. Some of the pipes also had a circumferential...

Fully Predictive Model of RCP in Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Ivankovic, Tropsa, Jasak, Leevers 2001 Munich

This work presents a 3D coupled solid-fluid model for predicting fast failures in pressurised plastic pipes. It is developed within a unified computational procedure where both solid pipe and pressurising media are discretised using the Finite Volume method. The coupling is achieved across the pipe-fluid interface...

Fundamental Aspects for Design of Electrofusion Fittings - 2001

Author(s) : Petry, Gressmann, Pylarski 2001 Munich

Electrofusion is undoubtedly the most important method for jointing polyethylene piping systems in gas and water distribution. Today it is not unusual to joint PE 100 pipes and fittings in diameters up to 500 mm using electrofusion couplers whereas only five years ago the maximum size used was 315 mm. With these large...

Gas 12 Bar PE Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Kovriga, Gorilovsky 2001 Munich

According to the Russian standard local high pressure gas lines have pressure level of 6 and 12 bar. To provide these gas lines by PE pipes researches were conducted and pipes made from PE100 diameter 160 mm SDR7.4 were developed and produced. Pipe’s laying (850 m) was made in Vladimir region in 1998. In 2000 pipes...

Gas Pipes - Qualification of Plastics Pipes for 10 Bar

Author(s) : Synnerholm 2001 Munich

PE 100 pipes were introduced as a possibility for use for natural gas in Sweden and Norway. The authorities had no doubts that the pipes were suitable for what they were designed. The main issue was whether the pipes were suitable for the same proximity distances or if they had to be altered. This paper explains the...

Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics Pipe Systems Produced

Author(s) : Neumayer, Knauder, Pilz, Lang, Major 2001 Munich

The importance of plastics piping systems based on glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resins (GRP-UP) for water supply, industrial or sewer pipe works has continuously increased worldwide. Centrifugal casting (CC) is one of the most important technologies to manufacture CC-GRP-UP pipes. UP-resins, mineral...

Harnessing Technology to Deliver Real Value

Author(s) : Harris 2001 Munich

This paper discusses the important role that technology continues to play in addressing the challenges faced by the energy industry and the natural gas industry in particular. It also highlights how the changing structure of the industry is having an impact on the way technology development needs are being met. The...

HDPE-Pipes with Protective Coating Multilayer Systems Yield New Possibilities

Author(s) : Werner 2001 Munich

This presentation illustrates the extended functional possibilities yielded by multilayer systems based on simple polyethylene pipes installed underground. A simple, installed polyethylene pipe comprises: • A core, through which the medium to be transported flows, • A pipe wall made of polyethylene, which is...

High Performance Fusion Jointing of PE-X Pipes

Author(s) : Friend, Harget, Hauki 2001 Munich

Fusion jointing of cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) pipe systems can be achieved by the use of conventional electrofusion (EF) couplers. The body of these couplers are manufactured from thermoplastic polyethylene, hence the performance of the joint is limited by the response of the body of the EF coupler. We report on...

Improved Performance for HDPE Pressure Pipes Used for Chlorinated Water

Author(s) : Oertli, Ifwarson 2001 Munich

While guaranteed lifetimes of pressure pipes in use is roughly 50 years, it is commonly accepted that a well designed and manufactured HDPE/MDPE pressure pipe would last as long as 100 years without failures. With ever-growing world population and intensifying pollution, it has become increasingly difficult supplying...

Innovative Installation Systems

Author(s) : Lorbeer 2001 Munich

The most important requirement for a pipe in H & C water applications is that it remains trouble free throughout its life time. The life span of a piping system is influenced by the fluid conveyed through it; the external environment of the pipe (sunlight, grease, etc.); and the pipes operating-conditions...

Investigating Crack Growth and Plasticity in the C-Ring Fracture Toughness Test

Author(s) : Davis, Burn, Whittle 2001 Munich

The C-ring test method is widely used by the water industry to determine the fracture toughness of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipes. The test currently forms a draft ISO standard (ISO/DIS 11673.2) and an interim Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS 1462.19(Int)) for fracture toughness assessment. Whilst results...

Jointing of PE-X-Pipes

Author(s) : Eckert 2001 Munich

Crosslinked polyethylene (PE-X) pipes, successfully used for decades in house installations and heating systems, have found a new and growing application in buried gas and water supply systems, in recent years. The reason for the renewed success of PE-X is due to its unsurpassed resistance to notches. The use of sand...

Latest Trends and Developments of PP for Piping Applications

Author(s) : Ebner 2001 Munich

Polypropylene (PP) has a long and successful tradition as a material for piping applications. Polypropylene can be modified in many ways to tailor it for the needs of specific applications and markets. Typical examples are sanitary pressure piping systems made from PP random co-polymers (PP-R) for domestic hot and...

Long Term Performance of PVC Pressure Pipes in a Large Rural Water Supply Scheme

Author(s) : Stahmner, Whittle 2001 Munich

A number of PVC pressure pipes were exhumed from a large rural water supply scheme constructed in the early 1970s. The pipes had been extruded by three manufacturers in both elastomeric seal and solvent cement joints. The pipes were subjected to a range of mechanical tests in order to assess whether there had been any...

Long Term Tightness of Sealing Joints in Non-Pressure Plastic Piping Systems

Author(s) : Scharwaechter 2001 Munich

Design of new rubber seal joints during last years have focused more on reduction of jointing forces than of sealing forces. Which sealing quality is necessary to avoid capillary water transfer and leakage through the joints on short and long-term, is an open question. Based on existing publications and test results...

Long-Term Point Loads Testing with Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Lenz 2001 Munich

The quality of the PE products used for gas and water pipe line systems was constantly improved in the last decades. The renouncement of the complex sand embedding of buried pipes and thus the use of PE pipes in no-dig procedures cannot be impossible any more. However the pipes have to be tested on the effects caused...

Measurement of Scores and Scratches on PE Pipes used in No-Dig Operations

Author(s) : Stokes, Potter, Muhl, Acland 2001 Munich

Research indicates that the scoring of polyethylene pipes that can occur during directional drilling operations in clay soils will not exceed the specification of 10% pipe wall scoring depth. However, a higher level of damage may occur in different types of soils from these operations. Further investigations from...

Mechanisms of Slow Crack Growth in PE Pipe Grades

Author(s) : Beech, Ferguson, Clutton 2001 Munich

Design of pipe systems for 50 year lifetimes depends on accelerated testing of pipe at different temperatures and standard extrapolation methods for assessment of whether the minimum required strength is achieved. Further acceleration is used in the notched pipe test (NPT), which is a medium term (up to 1000 hour)...

MT Multilayer Pipes for Gas Installations Inside Buildings

Author(s) : Braegelmann 2001 Munich

The only pipe materials for gas installations inside buildings in Germany and most of Europe used to be metals for a long period of time. Especially screwed steel pipes and soldered copper pipes have been installed. During the last few years also press systems made of copper were established. In contrast to this...

Multimodal Design of Thermoplastic Pipe Material

Author(s) : Berthold, Boehm, Enderle, Lackner, Lilge, Schulte 2001 Munich

The new generation pipe materials PE 100 are now well positioned in the market because of their unusual combination of mechanical properties. Major advantages are high resistance versus slow crack growth combined with superior stiffness. These new PE 100 resins show very high long term hydrostatic strength for...

New Generation Bimodal PE80 and PE100 Polymer Design Benefits Pipe Manufacture and End Use

Author(s) : Backman 2001 Munich

The introduction of bimodal polyethylene materials for piping systems such as PE100 and third generation PE80 HD has reinforced the trend from traditional to PE materials in piping systems for drinking water and gas applications. Improved physical properties and cost effective piping systems have increased the...

New Water Supply System for the City of Palermo

Author(s) : Keller 2001 Munich

Palermo, the capital of Sicily, is full of history and character - but in summer months it is often without water. At present, Palermo is currently implementing the biggest project of its kind in the field of European water distribution (Figures 1, 2 and 3). The population of Palermo is growing constantly. The water...

Opportunities for Plastics in Flexible Indoor Gas Pipe Systems

Author(s) : Oesterholt, Scholten, Roebers 2001 Munich

Worldwide more and more buildings are connected to natural gas. Until recently the gas within the building was exclusively distributed through metal pipe systems, such as straight copper pipes, soldered together and straight steel pipes, screwed together. About six years ago some pilot projects with PEX (crosslinked...

Opportunities for Polyolefins in Industrial Applications

Author(s) : Ettinger 2001 Munich

Polyolefins have been used in chemical and industrial applications for many years with an impressive and highly successful track record. However, the progress of polyolefin systems in substituting traditional materials such as cast iron, steel, concrete and clay has been much more striking in construction and utility...

Optimisation of Corrugated Duct Profiles

Author(s) : Fairfield, Hounsome, Reid 2001 Munich

This paper presents a method of optimising the distribution of plastic in a twin-walled, corrugated duct. This could be used to achieve maximum stiffness for minimum linear mass or a desired target stiffness for any envisaged market for the product. Spreadsheet optimisation routines1 based on a generalised reduced...

Optimising the Performance of Ferrule Straps with PVC Pipes

Author(s) : Stokes, Potter, Metcalfe, Bowman, Graham 2001 Munich

The response of three different forms of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe has been explored when the pipes had attached to them ferrule straps. Pipes were subjected to fluctuating internal pressure (fatigue) loading at 20°C, and the lifetimes, location of any failures and the types of failures recorded. Tests were made...

PE Pipeline Systems - The Big Success Story

Author(s) : Beech, Ducan, Millar 2001 Munich

Polyethylene has been used for pipeline applications for nearly 50 years now. It has become the prime material choice for gas and water distribution systems and many other applications worldwide. This paper reviews the growth in the market for polyethylene pipe products for both pressure and non pressure applications...

PE-HD Spiral for Sewage Pipelines - Electrofusion Socket Welding up to DN 1800

Author(s) : Frank 2001 Munich

Due to an increased environmental awareness, also in the field of sewerage, the problems with leaking drains have been given special emphasis. As sewage systems and treatment plants are often converted from mixed wastewater to concentrated, highly polluted water, leakproof pipelines are urgently needed today. However,...

PE-RT, A New Class of PE for Hot Water Pipes - 2001

Author(s) : Damen, Schramm, Quack, Sehanobish, Cham 2001 Munich

Developments in catalyst and process technology have resulted in a new highly differentiated product family based on ethylene-α-olefin copolymers. This paper reports on the key attributes of these materials. These polymers show superior Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at higher temperatures, without the need for...

PE-X for Gas and Water Pipes

Author(s) : Palmloef, Haizmann 2001 Munich

In practice the career of peroxide cross-linked polyethylene started in 1972 with the underfloor heating of the sports arena in Munich as a snow and ice melting system, built for the Olympic games. Since then the propagation of PE-X has been unstoppable. The spread of applications followed with tap water pipes and...

Performance of Buried Plastics Manholes

Author(s) : Alferink 2001 Munich

When starting with the application of buried thermoplastics pipes in the fifties, Wavin started to gain a lot of experimental experience with these pipes, which later formed a solid base for the correct application of thermoplastics pipes. In analogy, a lot of experimental experience is gained now with buried manholes...

Pipe Manufacturers Design and Installation Support Schemes

Author(s) : Tarbet, Smoker 2001 Munich

There is continuing pressure within the U.K. for water companies to reduce costs whilst increasing levels of service to customers. Staff numbers within the water companies have been reduced leading to less site supervision by water company engineers and the letting of design and build contracts. The design and...

Pipeline Systems Made of Plastics Pipes Extruded from PE

Author(s) : Schulte 2001 Munich

Lifetime expectations play a major role when selecting materials for pressure pipes. Information on the service life of a piping system made of polyethylene can be gained from the creep rupture tests at various temperatures being evaluated by standardized extrapolation methods (ISO/TR 9080). With the help of test...

Plastic Lined Pipe for Oil and Gas Service - The Corel Project

Author(s) : Groves, Goodrich 2001 Munich

The COREL – corrosion resisting liners – project has been running since 1997 with the aim of qualifying plastic lining systems for use in upstream oil and gas pipelines. Lined carbon steel pipes can be cheaper to install and operate than alternatives such as corrosion resistant alloys or large corrosion allowances...

Plastics Pipes: Opening New Dimensions

Author(s) : Richter 2001 Munich

Pipelines are the arteries of civilization. One of the greatest challenges of our age, namely the supply of clean water world-wide, cannot be resolved without plastic pipes for the efficient transport of drinking water and sewage. Of all the types of plastic suitable for this application, polyolefins are – after PVC...

PP Multilayer Coating Systems for the Offshore Pipeline Industry

Author(s) : Rydin 2001 Munich

During the last 15 years multilayer polypropylene coating systems have been developed and used as external coating for subsea pipelines in the offshore industry. There is now an increasing interest in the offshore steel pipe coating market for deepwater fields with a depth exceeding 1000 meters. The Gulf of Mexico and...

PPI Adopts International Pressure Rating Method for Plastic Piping Materials

Author(s) : Palermo 2001 Munich

In addition to the HDB (Hydrostatic Design Basis) pressure rating obtained using ASTM D 2837, PPI (Plastics Pipe Institute Inc.) now also lists the MRS (Minimum Required Strength) pressure rating obtained with ISO 9080 in PPI’s publication TR-4, “Hydrostatic Design Bases (HDB), Pressure Design Bases (PDB),...

Pressure Testing of PE Pipes Using Acoustic Temperature Measurement

Author(s) : Ashworth 2001 Munich

This paper describes an approach for performing improved commissioning tests on gas distribution mains. It covers the background theory to the problems involved, which include the discrimination of leaks from creep and temperature change. The production of models to predict the creep behaviour is outlined, along with...

Progress in PVC Pipes - Quality, Consistency and Sustainability

Author(s) : Bos, Tan 2001 Munich

The paper examines the production of PVC and its conversion into PVC-U pipes. Advances in chemistry, process engineering and the design of extrusion equipment have led to significant improvements in quality and consistency of both PVC polymers and pipes made from them. At the same time, pipe productivity has risen...

Protected PE100 Pipes for No Sand Installation

Author(s) : Koestering, Laurent 2001 Munich

With alternative installation techniques for drinking water pipes, the installed pipe has to take high stresses because of point loads and outside damages. The specific raw material characteristics, which have been proven by different test results, have been transferred to a pipe system, which allows cost savings with...

PVC in the Third Millennium

Author(s) : Thompson 2001 Munich

PVC in the third Millennium - this sounds fantastic! How can an old fashioned - as some people believe - plastics material continue to grow and develop further in this new and even faster emerging new millennium? PVC is under more and more competition in the pipe industry from other polymers such as PE and PP but also...

RCP Mastered by Two ISO-Tests

Author(s) : Vanspeybroeck 2001 Munich

Although total safety in the gas industry may be an impossible dream, each engineer must definitely use every possible means to come near to this perfection. In view of this objective some gas companies join their efforts for combined research and development in order to improve standards or specifications and...

Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe in the Oil and Gas Industries

Author(s) : Frost, Gibson 2001 Munich

This paper describes the activities of the Joint Industry Project on Implementation of Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe in the Oil and Gas Industries. The aim of the JIP is to promote applications of this new class of product in the transport of oilfield fluids, in gas transmission and in subsea flowlines.

Resistance of Crosslinked PE Pipes to Rock Impingement

Author(s) : Rouyer, Cornette 2001 Munich

Insofar as installing piping systems with traditional sand embedding is quite expensive and time-consuming, there is a current trend towards cost-effective, “trenchless” installation techniques (e.g. “ploughed-in”, directional drilling). Such buried pipes may be submitted to undesired external solicitations,...

Risk Analysis and Plastic Duct Design

Author(s) : Drummond, Fairfield, Wamuziri 2001 Munich

First Order Second Moment (FOSM) analysis techniques, employed in the development of limit state design codes, allow designers to account for the variations and random nature of the material properties and load effects inherent in the design of engineered structures. A generated non-linear equation is used in...

Soil-Pipe Interaction A Next Step in Understanding and Suggestions for Improvements

Author(s) : Alferink 2001 Munich

Two papers dealing with the intermediate results of the TEPPFA / APME project on design of thermoplastics pipes has been published at the 10th Plastics Pipes Conference in Gothenburg in 1998 by Alferink et al.1, 2 Meanwhile the study has been almost completed and the results discussed with several experts. Pipe...

Soil-Structure-Pipe Interaction with Particular Reference

Author(s) : Olliff, Rolfe, Wijeyesekera, Reginold 2001 Munich

Soil-pipe interaction studies generally recognise the significance of deformations in the pipe due to soil loading, but not differential ground and structure movements, which can induce excessive stress concentrations in the pipeline. Plastics pipes can suffer failure due to such movements, though their flexibility...

Special Applications for Piping Systems

Author(s) : Brenik 2001 Munich

Topics concerning pure or further developed materials take priority within the framework of this event. This lecture treats the combination of different materials and the possibilities of creating out of them the optimal construction for the respective, individually defined case of application. Chemical, mechanical...

Stiff PP The New Generation PP Block Polymer for Non-Pressure Pipe Applications

Author(s) : EK 2001 Munich

The new generation PP-B (Stiff PP), first introduced in 1998 for underground drainage and sewerage, is primarily based on a combination of a unique stiffness/impact property balance, low specific weight, good long-term properties and excellent chemical resistance. This paper gives the status of what has been achieved...

Structural and Fracture Methods as Means of Predicting the Lifetime of HDPE Pipes

Author(s) : Nezbedova, Zahradnickova, Salajka 2001 Munich

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is being used more and more in critical long-term application, such as in pipes for the distribution of water and gas. For this reason it is important to have a strong understanding of those parameters which control the fracture behaviour of HDPE. The main parameters are : i....

Sustainable Pipeline Systems - The Lifecycle Perspective

Author(s) : Kraehling, Spindler 2001 Munich

Market success factors agree with sustainability indicators to a large extent, both being multi-dimensional. Complete life cycle considerations are essential for comprehensive assessments. PVC pipeline systems are shown to be competitive considering all three sustainability categories, economic, ecological, and...

The Analysis of the Flexible Pipes Deflection, According to the Field Measurements

Author(s) : Kuliczkowski, Kubicka 2001 Munich

In the paper the situation, which exists in Poland in the field of the design of plastic pipes is presented. The size of the plastic pipes deflection obtained from the field measurements, which took place in Poland a few years ago, is widely discussed. The variety of pipe bedding conditions as well as its technical...

The Challenge and Opportunity of High Voltage Cable Pipes

Author(s) : Stafford, Bircumshaw 2001 Munich

The very high costs of underground electrical power transmission preclude its widespread usage even where social and environmental concerns make it highly desirable. This paper examines the technologies of below ground alternatives to overhead power lines and identifies the opportunities for introducing pipeline...

The Collapse Mechanics of Polymer and Composite Liners

Author(s) : Gibson, Wu, Frost, Korsunsky 2001 Munich

This paper considers the collapse of liners confined within rigid pipes and recommends design equations top avoid this effect. Two and three-dimensional aspects of the problem are examined. The onset of unstable collapse is well-described by the critical pressure predicted from analytical models and is essentially an...

The Ductile-Brittle Transition in Pipe-Grade PE

Author(s) : Leevers, Moreno, Paizis 2001 Munich

The resistance of PE pipes to rapid crack propagation depends strongly on temperature. The critical pressure measured using ISO 13477 ‘S4’ tests increases abruptly above a transition temperature Tc. For PE100 grades Tc has become a primary index of quality : it must remain below 0°C despite a tendency to...

The Evaluation of Factors Governing Long Term Performance of PE Electrofusion Fittings

Author(s) : Allcard, Beech 2001 Munich

It is widely accepted that in testing, the long term fracture mode for Electrofusion (EF) socket fittings is via Slow Crack Growth (SCG), initiating from the first wire turn from the centre cold zone of the fitting. This study examines the injection moulding process and the EF welding process and their potential to...

The Influence of Local Ageing in Brittle Failure of Thermoplastics Pipes

Author(s) : Pinter, Lang 2001 Munich

In this work the influence of three different stabiliser systems on the stress rupture behaviour of high density polyethylene (PE-HD) pipes under constant internal pressure was examined at 60 and 80 °C with special consideration of the quasi-brittle failure by growth of a single crack in the failure regime preceding...

The Influence of Water Quality on the Test-Life of PEX Pipe

Author(s) : Mahabir, Henderson 2001 Munich

A 24 Design of Experiments (DOE) test grid was run to examine the influence of the following variables on the chlorine resistance of PEX pipe; temperature, water quality (pH, chlorine concentration, ORP) and metal ions (inert vs. copper fittings). The four factors were each run at two levels and a centre point was...

The Introduction of PE-100 at Washington Gas

Author(s) : Gunther, Sandstrum 2001 Munich

Washington Gas has been researching a number of innovative methods for the repair and replacement of older large diameter cast iron mains. We considered direct burial, rolldown, U Lining, PIM, and guided boring. The ideal replacement technique would allow for a fully rated (64 psi or 5 bar) system which would have a...

The Market for Thermoplastic Pipe in Europe

Author(s) : Hackwell 2001 Munich

PVC remains the dominant polymer resin for pipe production throughput Europe and will remain so over the foreseeable future. Environmental pressure and development of newer grades of competitive materials have contributed to restraining growth for PVC, nevertheless growth is seen for multilayer and corrugated pipes....

The Need for Pipeline Rehabilitation

Author(s) : Elzink 2001 Munich

The type of problems encountered in existing pipelines are presented in this paper, together with the available methods to rehabilitate them. In the majority of the cases plastics are nowadays applied, either to replace the existing ones, or to renovate them by lining. The latter is increasingly gaining...

The Performance of a Gas Distribution System of Ductile PVC

Author(s) : Meijering 2001 Munich

In the Netherlands, a gas distribution system of Ductile PVC with elastomeric sealing ring joints and several special features is already operating to full satisfaction during more than 35 years. Today, Ductile PVC is the preferred material in this market. The total length of the gas distribution net is about 110.000...

The Role of Planning Models in Pipeline Rehabilitation

Author(s) : Burn, Davis, DeSilva, Marksjo, Tucker, Geehman 2001 Munich

To allow long-term strategies to be implemented for the replacement or refurbishment of water pipelines, a planning model called the Pipeline Asset and Risk Management System (PARMS) has been developed. This model, although based upon life cycle costing methodologies has been designed to incorporate whole of life...

Thin Walled PE Liners - Cutting the Costs of Corrosion

Author(s) : Boon 2001 Munich

This paper considers the current state of the UK water industry with respect to its maintenance of its pipelines, in the context of the regulatory framework in the UK, over the next 4 years. It also reviews the development of a thin walled PE liner for pipes in need of rehabilitation. The benefits of the use of thin...

Viscoelastic Properties of PE for Pipe Applications

Author(s) : Pilz, Lang 2001 Munich

To characterize the viscoelastic properties such as creep modulus and time dependent Poissons’s ratio of commercial medium and high density polyethylene materials (PE-MD, PE-HD), in total 5 types of polyethylene (PE) (pipe grades and non-pipe grades) with densities ranging from 0.928 to 0.951 g/cm3 were...

Welding with Integrated Non-Destructive Examination of PE Pipes

Author(s) : Troughton 2001 Munich

This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic non-destructive examination (NDE) system that is incorporated into an automatic butt fusion welding machine and performs an examination of the joint within the cooling time of the welding cycle. The programme of work included the optimisation of the ultrasonic NDE...

Which Factors Control the Lifetime of Plastics Pipes and How the Lifetime Can be Extrapolated

Author(s) : Andersson 2001 Munich

The lifetime of plastic pipes has been studied at Bodycote Polymer AB (formerly Studsvik Polymer AB) for more than 27 years. This paper presents some of the factors found to control the lifetime of plastic pipes. How to extrapolate the lifetime of plastic pipes will be presented and discussed. A question will also be...

Transferring High Standards outside Europe for Polyolefin Pipe Systems

Author(s) : Bresser 2001 Munich



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