PPCA conference : 1992 Eindhoven

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.

A Quality Control Test for Predicting the Lifetime of PE Pipes, Fittings and Resins

Author(s) : Brown, Lu 1992 Eindhoven

The test, called PENT, consists in measuring the resistance to slow crack growth of precisely notched specimens under constant load in air. The specimen geometry is designed and conditions are chosen so that failure is by slow crack growth as occurs under service in the field. The test conditions for producing failure...

A Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation

Author(s) : Kanninen, Buczala, Kuhlman, Green, Grigory, O'Donoghue, McCarth 1992 Eindhoven

Most current procedures for the design, installation and qualification of electrofused jointsin polyethylene gas piping systems are empirical in nature. To improve this situation, the Gas Research Institute initiated an integrated experimental and analysis research program at the Southwest Research Institute. The...

A Time Dependent Fracture Toughness Measure for PE Pipe Resins

Author(s) : Strebel, Moet 1992 Eindhoven

Medium density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe resins exhibit extraordinarily long time-to-failure, due to their superior brittle cracking resistance. Attempts to quantify this phenomenon using the J integral approach have been hampered by the large specimen thickness required to effect plane strain conditions and because...

An Evaluation of Toughened PVC-U Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Holloway, Naaktgeboren 1992 Eindhoven

The relatively high safety factors used in the design of PVC-U pressure pipes reflect concern about the possibility of brittle failure in service. Toughness may be improved by the addition of iinpact modifiers and plasticisers but normally strength is impaired. In this paper we show that pipes exhibiting a high...

Analysis of Enhanced Resistance to Slow Crack Growth in PE Materials

Author(s) : Leis 1992 Eindhoven

The effect of blunting at crack-like notches on the apparent subcritical toughness measured in terms of slow crack growth is discussed with regard to mechanics and materials aspects. Notch tip blunting is shown to rationalize the apparent enhanced subcritical toughness trends, leading to so-called super tough...

Antioxidant loss in Hot-Water Polyolefin Pipes - Experimental Data and Modelling

Author(s) : Gedde, Smith, Ifwarson, Viebke 1992 Eindhoven

Polyolefin pipes subjected to extensive hoop stresses fail in a ductile manner (stage I). At lower stresses failure is brittle and may in certain cases be preceded by degradation of the polymer (stage 111). Reviewed in this paper are the changes in polymer structure and antioxidant concentration profiles preceding the...

Computer Aided Design of the Butt Fusion Welding Processes on Polymer Pipes

Author(s) : Dib, Day, Benkreira, Wood 1992 Eindhoven

A computer program for the prediction and optimisation of process parameters for the butt fusion welding of polymer pipes is described. At the core of the program a mathematical model predicts bead size, melt layer thickness,pipe displacement and temperature : time history during each stage of the process for...

Crosslinked PE - Extruding the Limits of Pressure Pipe Performance

Author(s) : Harget, Skarelius, Imgram 1992 Eindhoven

Processes for the production of Crosslinked Polyethylene Pipe are discussed, with particular emphasis on peroxide crosslinking. Performance characteristics are presented in relation to key requirements of pressure pipe systems. Electrofusion is shown to provide an effective solution to pipe jointing, resulting in...

Development and Application of PE Gas Pipe Systems for Use at Pressures Beyond 7 bar

Author(s) : Ewing, Greig 1992 Eindhoven

Operation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes at 7 bar has been very successful in British Gas over the last few years. Using HDPE pipes at higher pressures requires a high level and correct balance of pipe properties of strength, stress crack and rapid crack propagation resistance. Raised levels of jointing...

Developments in European Standardization and Certification for Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : de Putter 1992 Eindhoven

The Plastics Pipes Industry (users and manufacturers) has made great progress to achieve European Standardization of their products. Much work still must to be done, including supporting at a national level what has been achieved with draft prEN or prEN ' s Insecurity exists with the harmonization of the...

Effect of Installation Conditions on Buried Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Alferink, Wolters 1992 Eindhoven

Results of deformation measurements carried out on buried plastics pipes installed at six different tests sites are discussed in this paper. The results show that the deflection of buried pipes is usually rather small and the time dependence is limited to a few years after installation. Traffic loading does not result...

End Effects on Long-Time Internal Pressure Testinf of PVC Pipes

Author(s) : Farshad, Flueler 1992 Eindhoven

In this paper, results of short and long time internal pressure tests on a number of PVC pipe samples are pre- sented. Modes of failure of the pipe specimens consisting of ductile rupturing and brittle fracturing have been...

Erosive wear Mapping of Pipe Materials

Author(s) : Wood, Moore 1992 Eindhoven

The erosion of pipe materials in slurry flow streams occurs through a variety of wear processes. As a result, the comparative wear resistance of materials is extremely difficult to predict from a knowledge of basic physical and engineering properties. Design and selection criteria must hence be based on empirical...

European Certification of Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Overton 1992 Eindhoven

For many years the plastics pipes industry has had various voluntary certification schemes available. With the advent of the European single market and the preparation of harmonised European product standards a natural progression is the development of a single European certification system. In October 1990 a meeting...

Evaluation of Slow Crack Growth Mechanisms in PE Pipes with a simple Reliable and Economic Method - The Cone Test

Author(s) : Bon 1992 Eindhoven

GAZ DE FRANCE has devised a method for monitoring the length-wise development of a longitudinal crack via the wall of a pipe submitted to constant deformation. Deformation is induced by inserting a cone of graded diameter into a pipe end.This test permits an easy, rapid (test duration is roughly five days) and...

Excellence in Welding HPPE

Author(s) : McPherson 1992 Eindhoven

Polyethylene (PE) pipeline systems are quickly becoming one of the preferred material choices for the large utilities such as Water and Gas. The material is now enjoying a rapid growth and acceptance as the NORM within the industry, as newer materials are introduced which increase the scope and pressure rating of PE...

Fibre Creep and Long-Term Fracture Resistance in PE

Author(s) : Channell, Cawood, Capaccio 1992 Eindhoven

A critical appraisal has been carried out of the creep fracture of the fibrils in the pre-crack damage zone (craze) of polyethylene homo and copolymers. It has been shown that by assuming that the fibrils are drawn to the natural draw ratio of the material, a clear correlation can be established between the creep rate...

Field failures in PE Gas Pipes - Analysis versus Lifetime Prediction

Author(s) : Scholten, Rijpkema 1992 Eindhoven

Eight excavated HDPE pipes of the 1st generation along with 3 modern PE types have been investigated. Comonomer content as a function of molecular weight of the old HDPE pipes appeared to be nonoptimal with respect to the modern PE types. Further unwanted effects in the old pipes were  : particles, oxydation,...

Forecasting the Long-Time Service Performance of PE Gas Distribution Pipes

Author(s) : Kuhlmann, Kanninen, Tweedy 1992 Eindhoven

Accelerated slow crack growth testing procedures that are coupled with newly developed bi-directional time-temperature shifting functions can provide reliable fracture mechanics based forecasts of long-term service performance of polyethylene gas distribution pipes. This methodology is first reviewed, then used in...

Fundamental Justification of a Fatigue Based Quality Control Test on All Sizes of Plastic Pipe

Author(s) : Lawrence 1992 Eindhoven

The limited demand for very large bore plastic pipes systems has resulted in a dearth of associated test data or strategy, but the need to now transport large quantities of water demand closer attention to this problem. The 'type testing' and routine (Q.C. ) testing of plastic pipe systems is already a difficult area,...

Fusion Jointing of PE Pipes - A Water Industry Perspective

Author(s) : Morris, Gill 1992 Eindhoven

The introduction of a new grade of polyethylene for pressure pipes has presented a challenge to the UK Water Industry. Some aspects of the performance of the pipe itself are claimed to be significantly better than those of existing MDPE grades which would offer significant economic and operational benefits. However,...

High Performance PE Compounds for safer Gas and Water Transportation

Author(s) : Dewitt 1992 Eindhoven

In the design and the realization of distribution or transportation networks of fluids under moderate pressure, the PE/MRS 80 option (2nd generation) is generally favourable for small to medium diameter, up to 200 mm. For larger diameter (200-500 mm), more often is the PE/MRS 100 option competitive. High performance...

High Strength Oriented HDPE Pipes

Author(s) : Ward, Atkinson, Greig, Hansard 1992 Eindhoven

A novel die-drawing process has been developed at Leeds University. By incorporating a mandrel, pipes may be expanded hoopwise whilst being drawn axially. Such biaxially-oriented pipes have properties better suited to the transmission of gases and liquids than either isotropic or longitudinally-drawn pipes. In this...

Lifetime Predictions of uPVC Pipes - Theoretical and Experimental Comparisons

Author(s) : Burn 1992 Eindhoven

When plastics pipes are installed in water reticulation or pumped sewer systems they are normally subjected to installation damage, the level of which can vary enormously depending on the care taken during installation. Cyclic pressure testing of uPVC pipes with various levels of simulated installation...

Methods for Tightness Testing of Plastics Pressure Pipelines

Author(s) : Janson 1992 Eindhoven

New research and development particularly concerning the long-term strain of modern PE resins have created a basis for a simple and adequate method for tightness testing of plastics pressure pipelines. Thus, it is shown that for plastics pipes subjected to constant internal hydraulic pressure, it is quite possible to...

New Procedures for the In Situ Repair of Surface Defects in Plastic Gas Distribution Pipes

Author(s) : Mamoun, Grigory, Mallow, Bucza 1992 Eindhoven

In current practice. even relatively benign damage to plastic ipes can require the complete replacement of the damaged section. T is costly process can be performed more efficiently with a n in situ patch repair procedure that uses a newly synthesized repair material. This material has mechanical properties comparable...

New Test Methods to Evaluate the Resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation in Pressurized PE Pipes

Author(s) : Vanspeybroeck 1992 Eindhoven

This paper describes the test methods to study rapid crack propagation (RCP) behaviour of polyethylene (PE) pipes, including the evaluation of the correlations between different test methods. The test methods concerned are the Full Scale test, the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test, the Small Scale Steady State Scum...

No-Dig Lateral Reconnecting in Lined Sewer Pipes

Author(s) : Meijers, van Beurden 1992 Eindhoven

The reconnecting of drains after lining sewer pipes is a major stumbling block in the acceptance of the no-dig renovation techniques. A fitting and robotics have been developed to solve this problem without digging up the existing connection. The solution is based on the expansion of a thermoplastic connector by means...

PE Submarine Outfall lines

Author(s) : Berndtson 1992 Eindhoven

Polyethylene has found increasing usage in industrial pipes, especially in large diameter submarine pipes. This paper outlines the benefits of polyethylene in this application, comparing it to competitive materials. Examples are given on projects were polyethylene has been chosen, and the reasons behind this choice.

Pipe the bores

Author(s) : Thoresson 1992 Eindhoven

The Great Artesian Basin is one of the world's greatest natural resources. Underlaying a large part of the Australian continent, the basin and its water is a necessity to survive in this part of the world. The basin was discovered more than one hundred years ago. The intensive use of the water has over time caused...

Plastics Pipes in Water Distribution Systems. A Study of Failure Frequencies

Author(s) : Bjorklund 1992 Eindhoven

Investigations of failure frequencies in municipal water distribution networks have been performed on several occasions over the past 15 years in Sweden. In a follow-up study, reasons for failure in PVC and PE water pipes during the period 1986-1990 have been studied. It was found that PVC pipes manufactured after...

Plastics Pipes Industry Overview

Author(s) : Schepers 1992 Eindhoven

Where are we The plastic pipe industry in Europe has realised dominant positions against traditional materials in the markets for gas and water transport and in the building industry. .Considerable scope for growth is available in larger sizes where predominantly traditional materials still hold a strong position.New...

Procedures of Quantifying the Strength of Electrofusion Joints

Author(s) : Bowman,Medhurst, Portas 1992 Eindhoven

For two sample shapes different procedures have been examined as methods to quickly and quantitatively assess the strength of electrofusion joints. It is shown that the peel test, specified in BS7336, can be added to in order to obtain a quantitative measure of joint strength either using the % ductility on the...

Procedures to Prevent Rapid Crack Propagation in PE Gas Pipes

Author(s) : Kanninen, Leung, O'Donoghue 1992 Eindhoven

This paper outlines a theoretical approach developed to quantify the conditions for a long-running crack in PE gas distribution pipes. Comparisons with a full-scale experiment on a 250 mm diameter SDR 17.6 MDPE pipe are made to demonstrate the validity of the model. The present status of a user-oriented procedure to...

Profiled Flexible Pipes - A Comeback for Sliplining in Pipe Renovation

Author(s) : Lund 1992 Eindhoven

The design requirements of an axially flexible and cross-sectionally stiff pipe for use in pipe renovation are discussed. This application also puts stringent demands on the joint configuration. Ways to solve these problems are proposed.One renovation system, marketed as Fiexoren, based on such a pipe is described in...

PVC Pipes - Today and Tomorrow

Author(s) : Mayrhofer 1992 Eindhoven

The advantages of PVC, whicn have led to its predominant position amongst polymeric materials used for pipe applications ranging from sewer pipes and water pressure pipes to drainage pipes, rain water goods and cable ducting are well known. Besides being light in weight and energy efficient in their production, PVC...

Rapid Crack Propagation along Pressurized PE Pipe - Small Scale Testing and Numerical Modelling

Author(s) : Leevers, Venizelos, Ivankovic 1992 Eindhoven

The small-scale 'S4' test for rapid crack propagation seems set to acquire the status of a specifying standard for polyethylene gas distribution pipe. This paper describes parallel research projects on pressureinstrumented S 4 t e s t s a n d on Finite-Volume numerical analysis of S4 and full-scale tests....

Recycling Pipe and Profile Scrap

Author(s) : Ziebell 1992 Eindhoven

It is unavoidable that rejects and scrap of a significant value occur during the extruding process of plastic pipes and profiles. This has been recognized by the manufacturers, and these days there is hardly an extruding company that does not see its production scrap, an amount between two and five percent, as a...

Rehabilitation - The Use of Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Elzink 1992 Eindhoven

The problems associated with our pipeline infrastructure are addressed in a broad sense. Optional solutions of rehabilitating existing systems with plastics pipelines are described and illustrated.

Service Life Anaylsis of PVC Gas Pipes in Practice

Author(s) : Rijpkema, Wolters 1992 Eindhoven

In the Netherlands about 20,000 km of uPVC (unplasticized PolyVinylChloride) gas pipes are in use. The oldest uPVC pipes have been in operation for over 30 years now. These systems were usually designed for a period of between 30 and 50 years. Probably, however, the actual service life will turn out to be much...

Shock Behaviour of HDPE Pipes

Author(s) : Farshad, Flueler 1992 Eindhoven

In this paper, results of an investigation on behavior of HDPE pipes under internal shock pressure are presented. A number of HDPE pipe segments have been subjected to travelling shock wave of internal water pressure produced by an axial impacting mechanism. Three types of failure, consisting of ductile rupture,...

Smart Heat Induction Fusion Joining of PE Gas Pipe - Results of PRI sponsored Project

Author(s) : Tight 1992 Eindhoven

In 1989, a project was launched by the Gas Research Institute to develop a method of pipe joining and repair that utilized a new constant-temperature heating technology. In the project, prototype fittings with molded-in wire heater structures were inductively heated to achieve a pipe fusion joint that passed all of...

Spirally ribbed, directly extruded structured PVC-U Pipe. Production, Properties and Jointing Methods

Author(s) : Boeen 1992 Eindhoven

The production of thermoplastics pipe is firmly tied to the extrusion technique. The principle is simple and the effectiveness of working and homogenizing the material is the best obtainable. What has not been possible, is by extrusion alone to give the pipe wall a profile other than in the longitudinal direction. To...

Structural Behaviour of Thin-Walled Plastic Pipe Linings for Water Mains

Author(s) : Boot, Guan 1992 Eindhoven

The case for development of rational design criteria for thinwalled polyethylene pipe linings is argued. Progress to date on a programme of research formulated to meet this objective is discussed. Short and long term behaviour under stress is modelled using elasto-plastic and elasto-viscoplastic constitutive models...

Swagelining - A Pipeline Renovation Technique

Author(s) : Maine, Ross 1992 Eindhoven

Renovation of an old main, by insertion of a medium density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe, reduces costs in excavation and reinstatement. Traditionally the inserted pipe is smaller than the existing main resulting in a reduction in flow capacity. This paper reviews the development and evaluation of a lining technique,...

The Actual Performance of Plastics Pipes in Europe over 25 Years

Author(s) : Elzink, Molin 1992 Eindhoven

Today, in some parts of Europe plastics pipes and fittings are considered as mature products which have obtained an established position in underground applications. However, in others due to their flexible nature, their use is still sometimes questioned. This paper describes the actual performance of plastics pipes...

The Challenge for Water Pipe Systems in the 21st Century

Author(s) : Jones 1992 Eindhoven

The challenge for water pipe systems in the 2lst Century is addressed. Factors influencing the change process in meeting the challenge are identified and explored. It is noted that, whilst construction of new water pipe systems will continue to be important major effort will need to be expanded in relation to the...

The Cooling Phase of Large Pipe Manufacture

Author(s) : Pittman, Whitman, Gwynn, Beech 1992 Eindhoven

Comprehensive operating data from a large-scale pipe cooling lime are reported, including in-situ measurements of temperatures within the pipe wall. A finite element simulation of cooling, coupled with gravity induced flow, or slump, in the pipe wall is described. Computed temperatures within the wall are compared...

The Development of the Notched Pipe Test for the Assessment of the Slow Crack Growth Resistance of PE Pipe

Author(s) : Beech, Allwood 1992 Eindhoven

The basis for the evaluation of polyethylene materials for pressure pipe applications is hydrostatic stress rupture testing for the prediction of long term hoop strength.However it is crucially important that the fracture properties of the materials are understood and indeed may result in limitations of their use....

The Evaluation of Mechanical Testing Techniques and the Influence of Defects on MDPE Butt Fusion Welds

Author(s) : Girardi 1992 Eindhoven

Various test geometries with known defects, such as might occur in practice. were evaluated and compared to the British Gas standard for butt fusion welds. Novel testing techniques are described. A suitable test geometry was established and used to assess the influence of defect size on properties. Small defects were...

The Evaluation of Polyolefin Pipes by Means of the Ultimative Elastic Wall Stress Concept

Author(s) : De Craene, Schwenke 1992 Eindhoven

Because pipes are submitted to cyclic stresses in the UEWS test, this method offers some advantages over the standard long term burst pressure test. Clear transition points between elastic and inelastic regions of the stress-strain curve can be identified. These transition points are a sound basis for the...

The Failure of Long Term Pressure Properties of Plastic Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Marhsall, Harry, Ward, Pearson 1992 Eindhoven

Existing test methods used for the characterisation of long term strength properties of plastic materials for use in pressure pipe duties have been reviewed. A notched "C" ring type test has been developed to define the long term crack resistance and strength properties of a CPE modified PVC. Since materials of this...

The Future of R&D of Plastics Pipes Used in Gas Distribution Systems

Author(s) : Mamoun 1992 Eindhoven

A brief overview is presented on some important research programs on plastic pipes conducted within the last ten years. Several signif icant research results and their impact on manufacturers and users of plastic pipes are high1 ighted. Results of research and development (R&D) on material characterization,...

The Influence of Time and Temperature on the Strength of a Multilayer Pressure Pipe

Author(s) : Bowman 1992 Eindhoven

The influence of time and temperature on the long term strength of a multilayer pressure pipe has been investigated. The pipe consists of five layers, one of which is an aluminium foil while the other four layers are polyethylene based and form the significant ( > 8 5 % ) part of the pipe wall. In respect of strength...

The PE Pipe Industry

Author(s) : Lamond 1992 Eindhoven

The use of polyethylene in pipe systems for the distribution of gas, water and other industrial applications has grown rapidly over recent years. The development of polyethylene compounds with ever improving combinations of toughness and flexibility has contributed to this success but the key factor has been the...

The Potential for Recycling Scrap arising from Pipeline Systems

Author(s) : Bevis 1992 Eindhoven

Europe has accepted that resources should be recycled to avoid waste and is incorporated in European Community stragegy for waste management : - The prevention and reduction of waste arisings at source.- The increased use of recycling and re-use of materials wherever possible.- The safe disposal of unavoidable...

The Use of recently Developed Experimental Methods and Modelling Techniques to study Crack Propagation in Viscoelastic Materials

Author(s) : Clutton, Dear, Channell 1992 Eindhoven

Two novel techniques have been applied to the problem of determining the fracture toughness of polyethylene appropriate to the situation of rapid crack propagation in pipe systems.Agreement is found between the data from the two methods used for evaluating four grades of polyethylene of widely different toughness. By...

Use of PE Pipes for Gas Distribution in Italy

Author(s) : Del Gaudio 1992 Eindhoven

The use of polyethylene for gas distribution networks was authorized in Italy only in 1984. Genoa's AMGA was the first in Italy to use medium-density polyethylene for an extension of its gas network of over 150 kilometres. A trench - machine supplied by British Gas was used for the excavations. Significant...

What Controls the Lifetime of Plastic Pipes and how can the Lifetime be Extrapolated

Author(s) : Ifwarson, Leijstroem 1992 Eindhoven

The lifetime of plastic pipes has been studied at Studsvik for nearly 20 years. This paper presents results obtained from hydrostatic pressure testing of pipes made from polyethylene, crosslinked polyethylene and polypropylene. Examples of how different factors influence the lifetime of plastic pipes are explained in...

Shear controlled Orientation in Thermoplastic Pipe Extrusion

Author(s) : Allan, Bevis, Chuah, Ma 1992 Eindhoven



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