PPCA conference : 2010 Vancouver

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.
You have access to a generic search, or to an advanced search, by preset keywords.

CPVC Piping Systems in Desalination Applications

Author(s) : Tom Breiner and Gulnara Omarbekova 2010 Vancouver

Water is a scarce commodity and access to clean drinking water is a pressing need for much of the world’s population. Yet water comprises more than 70% of the surface area of our planet. National governments and water authorities are challenging their engineers and procurement officials to find technology that will...

Five years of experience in high pressure pipeline renovation using Compact Pipe technology

Author(s) : A. Wróblewska 2010 Vancouver

Five years of experience in high pressure pipeline renovation using Compact Pipe technology Polyethylene, as no other new generation material, has found application in constructing new and renovating old water, gas, sewer and other pipelines. Its reliability allows to extend range of its application further and...

How CPVC has improved the Reliability of Acid and Alkali Lines at Cold Rolling Mills of Steel Plants and other Chemical Applications

Author(s) : Manoj Dhar 2010 Vancouver

Historically industries have relied largely on steel and higher alloys for the piping that transports water and chemicals through their treatment facilities. Despite the perceived strength of steel, it has proven vulnerable to pitting, corrosion & leaks while failing to meet higher performance standards. Today...

LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTING OF A NEW SEGMENTAL, FLASHJOINT PVC PIPE FOR SLIPLINING AND PIPE BURSTING

Author(s) : Erez N. Allouche, John C. Matthews, Sebastian Gauthier and Kevin Nagle 2010 Vancouver

While pipe bursting is a well accepted in-line replacement method for gravity sewers and drains in North America, it presents several limitations. The size of the equipment needed to burst pipes 200 mm or greater in diameter is too large to fit inside a typical 1.2 m diameter manhole. Also¸ the force needed to...

PP sewage pipes ensuring a healthier future in Asia and the Middle East

Author(s) : Youssef Taha, Jarmo Harjuntausta, Gunter Dreiling 2010 Vancouver

Polypropylene Block Copolymers (PP-B) have a long and successful track record as a material for non-pressure piping applications in Europe. Many PP sewage systems have now been in service for over 30 years and since the introduction of the new PP high Modulus (PP-HM) grades in the 1990’s, market growth has been...

Using Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) In Natural Gas Distribution Applications

Author(s) : Nathan Lesage, Blaine Weller 2010 Vancouver

Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) combines high performing materials with high strength reinforcements in a unique construction to create a spoolable high pressure pipeline system. This construction is well suited to a variety of applications. The primary use of RTP has been in the upstream oil and gas industry for...

12INCH (323mm) DR17 PE100 / PE4710 PIPE INSTALLATION IN CALGARY, ALBERTA

Author(s) : D.Tchir 2010 Vancouver

In late 2008, ATCO Gas completed installation of 3 km (2 miles) of 323 mm (12 in.) DR 17 PE 100 / PE 4710 gas main in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. This was the first DR 17 pipe used by ATCO Gas. This was also one of the Company’s first HDPE projects. MDPE is more commonly selected for natural gas distribution...

A New Qualification Method for Butt Fusion Joining of Polyethylene (PE) Pipe and Fittings in the United States

Author(s) : S.Sandstrum 2010 Vancouver

Historically, the procedure for butt fusion joining of polyethylene (PE) pipe in the United States has been qualified on the basis of two fundamental tests that are widely recognized within the North American industry. These are the tensile impact (TI) test method found in ASTM F2634 and the bend-back or reverse-bend...

A REVIEW OF SERVICE LIFE PREDICTION MODELS FOR HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPING FOR NUCLEAR SAFETY - RELATED APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : P.Krishnaswamy 2010 Vancouver

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes Committee (BPVC) has published Code Case N-755 that describes the requirements for the use of Polyethylene (PE) pipe for the construction of Section III, Division 1 Class 3 buried piping systems for service water applications in...

A service Life Assessment of Corrugated HDPE Drainage Pipe

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer 2010 Vancouver

The service life of our nation’s infrastructure has become a topic of increasing focus 1n recent years. While above-ground infrastructure deterioration is readily apparent, the infrastructure beneath the surface can be much worse and yet is often ignored until it is too late. Since culverts and other buried...

A Tough Initiation for PE100 in Kuwait’s Oil Industry

Author(s) : P.Hayes 2010 Vancouver

Internal corrosion of steel oil and gas flow lines is a problem for many oil companies in the Middle East, especially for wells, where there are high levels of hydrogen sulphide. “Close-fit” internal lining with polyethylene pipes can significantly extend the lifetime of the flow lines but, whilst the use of...

Acoustic Testing of Plastic Pipe and Construction Materials

Author(s) : Ali Ahmadnia, Peter Allan, Rob Withnall, and Jack Silver 2010 Vancouver

The acoustic properties of polypropylene, polyethylene and PVC which are widely used in the automotive, construction and pipe industries were measured. The acoustical parameter selected for this study is ‘sound transmission loss’. Acoustic tests were conducted using a Bruel & Kjaer acoustic tube with four...

Advantages of Infra-Red Welding of Polyethylene Pipes for Industrial applications

Author(s) : C.Williamson 2010 Vancouver

Welding plastic piping systems via direct contact with a heating element and pressure, known as conventional butt fusion (CBF), has been successfully used for many years. However, there are a number of downsides to using manual driven CBF. First, there are many dependent equipment variables involved which the...

AN ELEGANT AND FAST METHOD TO PREDICT THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH BEH AVIOUR OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE MATERIALS

Author(s) : L.Havermans SABIC 2010 Vancouver

Resistance to slow crack growth is an important material property of polyethylene which determines the application lifetime, especially for utility pipe applications. Usually, the slow crack growth resistance of materials is assed by time consuming testing methods such as NPT, FNCT, PENT, etc. These methods require...

Analysis of the pipe failures in the 2008 frozen-rain & snow, earthquake in China

Author(s) : Zhanjie Wang, Robin Bresser & Cindy Wang 2010 Vancouver

The performance of utility pipelines for gas and water during natural disasters such as earthquakes has always been a matter of great concern. In 2008, two unexpected and serious natural disasters occurred in China. The first was the unprecedented cold weather in January, covering 6 provinces in southern China which...

Analytical Model of Stresses Caused by Over-Belling PVC Pipe

Author(s) : Steven L. Folkman, A. P. Moser, Thomas Fronk 2010 Vancouver

Manufacturers of large diameter PVC pipe place a mark on the spigot of the pipe to indicate the proper insertion depth into the adjoining bell during installation. If proper installation procedures are followed, inserting the spigot into the bell does not create significant stresses in the pipe. Additionally, small...

ASSESSING THE POLYOLEFIN WATER FOOTPRINT

Author(s) : J.Toogood 2010 Vancouver

Equitable and sustainable management of water resources is a major global challenge.About one third of the world’s population lives in countries with moderate to high water stress, resulting in a disproportionately high impact on the poor. Based on the currently projected human population growth, industrial...

ASSESSING THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE RESINS AND PIPE SERVICE LIFETIMES PREDICTIONS

Author(s) : ASUKHADIA 2010 Vancouver

Many different tests and methods have been proposed to assess SCG resistance of Polyethylene (PE) resins and pipes. Among them, the PENT test has found widespread popularity and use as a measure of the Slow Crack Growth (SCG) performance of PE pipe resins. More recently, a relationship was even proposed in the...

Barreling at cut ends of PE pipe: numerical and experimental investigation

Author(s) : A.Guevara 2010 Vancouver

When a thermoplastic pipe is cut to length, residual stresses are released causing local bending, reducing the diameter of the pipe at the cut end. Moving back inwards from the cut end, the measured pipe diameter does not simply increase to its initial value but locally overshoots to a new maximum : “pipe...

BUTT FUSION COOLING TIMES, SPEEDING UP THE PROCESS

Author(s) : Ted Striplin 2010 Vancouver

The polyethylene (PE) pipe system has many attributes that make it the most reliable and highest quality system within the prescribed pressure and temperature limitations. However, the process itself is the weakest link in the PE pipe sales chain. While easier to join in large diameters, it can require the most time...

CHANGES TO CSA Z662 “OIL AND GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS” TO INCORPORATE HIGHER PERFORMANCE PLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : Rob. J. Fox, Dr. Gene Palermo 2010 Vancouver

CSA Z662 is the Standard for the use of plastic pipe in Canadian oil and gas pipeline systems. This paper will give an overview of the recently approved revisions to CSA Z662-11 “Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems”, which will be published next year. These revisions include the following : - RCP Requirements for PE...

City of Palo Alto Adoption of HDPE 4710 for Potable Water Distribution

Author(s) : G.Scoby 2010 Vancouver

This paper will detail the efforts associated with the conversion of the potable water system materials to HDPE 4710, along with a detailed overview of the project construction, including lessons learned and our future goals to install a 100% fused HDPE 4710 water system from the main to the meter.

Comparison Between PE4710 (PE4710 PLUS) and PE100 (PE100+, PE 100 RC)

Author(s) : Dr. Gene Palermo 2010 Vancouver

The scope of this paper is to clarify the various pipe material designation codes and other terms (PE 4710, PE 4710 PLUS, PE 100, PE 100 RC and PE 100+) that are used in the piping industry for high density polyethylene (HDPE) materials. These are the benchmark “high performance” HDPE materials used worldwide for...

Comparison of FNCT vs. PENT as commonly Used Test Methods for ESCR Performenc of HDPE

Author(s) : S.Joseph 2010 Vancouver

Companies of LyondellBasell FNCT (Full Notched Creep Test, ISO DIS 16770-3) and PENT (Pennsylvania Notch Test, ASTM F-1473) are commonly used test methods to measure the stress-crack resistance of polyethylene resins used in pressure pipe applications. FNCT test is primarily used in Europe whereas the PENT test is...

COMPARISON OF NOVEL TESTING METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN PE 100

Author(s) : Christian Tischler, Markus Haager, Thomas R. Kratochvilla, Heinz Muschik, Heinz Dragaun 2010 Vancouver

The static test method of the Notched Ring Test (NRT) is compared with a fatigue testing method of Cracked Round Bar (CRB). Both methods are candidates for the classification of polyethylene (PE) materials with high resistance against Slow Crack Growth (SCG). In this paper tests of two PE 100 and two PE 100-RC...

CONSERVATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS WIN WIN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCER

Author(s) : STEPHEN W. BAKER 2010 Vancouver

Corrugated polyethylene drainage pipe has been used for agricultural drainage in the Midwestern United States for approximately forty years. The increased worldwide demand for corn and soybeans has triggered an increased use of fertilizers and drainage systems by the producer. This combination of these two yield...

COVER BLOW-OFF RESISTANCE OF REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPES FOR GAS SERVICE

Author(s) : E.J.W. van der Stok, F.L. Scholten, L.G.P. Dalmolen 2010 Vancouver

A mathematical model was set up to assess the equilibrium gas pressure in the annulus of the reinforcement layer of an RTP pipe. This is done by using the theory of gas permeation, ruled by Fick's Law and the theory for a temperature gradient over the pipe wall, ruled by Fourier's law. The model allows calculating the...

CYCLIC CRB TESTS -A QUICK AND RELIABLE TOOL FOR RANKING OF PE PIPE GRADES

Author(s) : G.Pinter 2010 Vancouver

Different polyethylene pipe grades and lots were investigated with a fracture mechanics procedures under cyclic loads. The cyclic tests with Cracked Round Bars allowed a ranking of the different materials concerning crack resistance as a function of failure time as well as of crack initiation time within one week at...

DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DETRIMENTAL CONDITIONS IN HDPE USING ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY

Author(s) : C.Frederick 2010 Vancouver

For over thirty years, the gas distribution industry has installed High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) piping. More recently, the nuclear power industry has also installed HDPE in both safety-related and non-safety-related systems. Both industries have recognized the benefits of HDPE such as extended service life with...

Development of a novel class of polyethylene materials for Hot and Cold applications: a small-scale study to appraise the long term strength at high temperature

Author(s) : Dominique JAN, Adrian POPA 2010 Vancouver

Small-scale tests on specimens have been developed to better understand the performance of polyethylene materials at high temperature. In the frame of this study, several polymerization and catalyst technologies have been investigated in order to select the most attractive technical options for hot and cold water...

Development of an Automatic Test Procedure for Determining the Mechanical Properties of HM and HD Welds with Mechanized Torsional and Linear Shear Tests

Author(s) : Benjamin Baudrit, Dietmar Kraft, Martin Bastian and Peter Heidemeyer 2010 Vancouver

In 2008, the Sueddeutsche Kunststoff-Zentrum (SKZ), a testing and R&D plastics institute based in Wuerzburg (Germany), began in cooperation with the company WIDOS, a welding machine manufacturer based in Ditzingen (Germany), to develop a testing device for establishing the mechanical properties of joints executed by...

Direct Addition of Calcium Carbonate Novel and Superior Technology to the Classical Rigid PVC Dry Blend Mixing Process

Author(s) : Edward Raymond, Holger Mueller 2010 Vancouver

PVC-u, Calcium Carbonate, Direct Addition, Dry Blend Mixing Usually, PVC and additives are processed in a hot / cold mixer to yield a dry blend which is conveyed pneumatically to silos for intermediate storage. During the transfer process, the PVC and calcium carbonate can separate at high loading levels. This can...

DURABILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE PIPES FOR NONPRESSURE APPLICATIONS– INFLUENCE FROM SURFACE DAMAGE AND POINT LOADS

Author(s) : Sven-Erik Sällberg, Kristian Thörnblom, Hans Sandberg 2010 Vancouver

As trenchless installation techniques and coarse-grained backfill materials are gaining in interest for plastics pipelines, the influence from surface damage on the technical lifetime is becoming more and more important. For non-pressure applications, such as gravity sewers, this aspect is relevant, e.g., when...

Ensuring Long-Term Performance of Polyethylene in Potable Water Applications

Author(s) : K.Oliphant 2010 Vancouver

Polyethylene (PE) piping materials have been used in potable water applications for more than 50 years with considerable success and have enjoyed a consistently high satisfaction rating from Water Utilities. Since the introduction of these first materials, material performance has evolved significantly. To demonstrate...

Evaluation of a novel Microwave based NDT inspection method for Polyethylene joints

Author(s) : Ken Murphy, David Lowe 2010 Vancouver

Exova is continuing in the long tradition of Pipeline Developments Limited (PDL) in the UK with research, development, testing, quality assurance (QA) and failure analysis of modern plastic pipe materials and joints. Along with this ongoing work Exova has assessed various non destructive testing (NDT) techniques in an...

Evaluation of Electrofusion Joints Strength of Polyethylene Pipes for Gas Distribution

Author(s) : H.Nishiumra 2010 Vancouver

The most popular and applicable method for connecting polyethylene (PE) pipes is to use heat fusion (HF) and electrofusion (EF). To remove chemical degradation, sand contamination, and water drop adhesion at a pipe surface, scraping the pipe surface and cleaning it with a wetted wiper including ethanol called PE...

Examination of Internal Notched Pipe Testing as an Accelerated Methodology for Evaluating the Oxidative Resistance of Plastic Piping Materials in Potable Water Applications

Author(s) : S. Chung, M. Conrad, S. Lee, K. Oliphant, M. Wang 2010 Vancouver

ASTM F2023 and ASTM F2263 have been used to evaluate the oxidative resistance of plastic piping materials to potable water. As a potential method to accelerate this testing, the use of internally notched pipe has been investigated and preliminary research has shown that the method appears to be able to generate the...

Experimental Investigations of the Rapid Crack Propagation Performance of Polyethylene Pipes

Author(s) : M.Lamborn 2010 Vancouver

Good resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) is considered to be important to the field performance of polyethylene (PE) pipe. Even though RCP occurrences in PE pipe are very rare, it remains important to understand the RCP phenomenon to ensure that pipes are designed to avoid RCP events. The characterization of...

Field inspection of Phase-Array ultrasonic for polyethylene electrofusion join

Author(s) : Skil 2010 Vancouver

Welding and/or fusion in polyethylene(PE) system made on site is focused on the control of the welding or fusion process to follow proper procedure. However important the process control is, it is not sufficient for the long term reliability of a pipe system. To achieve the rate of failure close to...

Field Installations of Polyamide 12 (PA12) in Natural Gas Distribution Systems

Author(s) : Dennis Jarnecke 2010 Vancouver

The natural gas industry has long understood the advantages associated with plastic piping materials. In addition to being easier to handle and join, plastic piping materials eliminate the need for long-term corrosion control and the associated costs. Since the midhas been an on-going effort to utilize the plastic...

Fracture Mechanics Lifetime Prediction of PE 80 and PE 100 Pipes under Complex Loading Conditions

Author(s) : A.Frank 2010 Vancouver

Lifetime prediction of pressurized pipes made of polyethylene (PE) under complex loading situations is of special interest. Methods of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) are suitable to characterize the relevant long-term failure mechanisms in such pipes, which is slow crack growth. However, these methods...

GAS PERMEATION IN MULTI-LAYERED COMPOSITE PIPE FOR HIGH PRESSURE PIPELINES

Author(s) : Mel Kanninen, Kyle Bethel and Aron Ekelund 2010 Vancouver

It is well known that gas permeation in thermoplastic pipe is proportional to pressure. Accordingly, quantitative consideration must be given to this phenomenon to properly design and operate reinforced thermoplastic composite pipe (RTCP) in high pressure applications. In this paper a permeation predictive model based...

Green Solution for PE-Xb in Drinking Water and beyond

Author(s) : D. Scholzl 2010 Vancouver

Silon, one of the major producers of PEX compounds for pipe applications has worked in partnership with Dow Corning and the Polymer Institute of Brno (CZ) in developing a new silane-crosslinked-polyethylene compound (PE-Xb). The new product that has evolved from this co-operation shall offer the pipe extruders the...

HARMONISATION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE BUTTFUSION PROCEDURES AND TEST METHODS

Author(s) : S.Beech 2010 Vancouver

Several well established procedures are used for butt fusion welding of PE pipes globally. The most widely used procedures are the European Single Pressure, UK Dual Pressure, and the USA High Pressure procedures. In the future it may be possible to rationalise these procedures. Materials and machinery developments are...

HIGH-PRESSURE PIPES MADE FROM POLYETHYLENE ONLY–A NEW GENERATION OF PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : T.Spath 2010 Vancouver

Polyethylene is a thermoplastic material that has very balanced properties and therefore established itself as standard material in piping construction both for the supply of water and also for the low and medium pressure range distribution of gas. However it has not been possible to use the plastic pipeline in the...

HOW CPVC HELPED TO SOLVE CRITICAL ISSUES IN HOUSEHOLD PIPING AND PLUMBING APPLICATIONS IN INDIA?

Author(s) : MANOJ DHAR 2010 Vancouver

It is a Thirsty World Industry is Thirsty Agriculture is Thirsty We are Thirsty Water the Elixir of Life………. The only precious creation of God which is considered rather is base of anything in this Universe. Since Ancient ages we understand the Livelihood started by the banks of rivers which helped the Human...

Improvement of Existing Chlorine Resistance Method and Discussion of Method’s Suitability for Different Polyolefin Materials

Author(s) : J.HASSINEN 2010 Vancouver

The successful development of a material depends on reliable test methods to evaluate its suitability for the end use conditions. The use of existing thermo oxidative chlorine resistance method may serve as a tool for evaluating the variability of chlorine resistance on materials of the same type as long as no...

Influence of Molecular weight on the properties of bioriented PVC

Author(s) : J. Fumire 2010 Vancouver

Bioriented PVC items show strongly improved mechanical properties versus standard PVC. It is known that biorientation efficiency is related with PVC Molecular weight since very low molecular weight resins are not very suitable for biorientation.Generally bioriented pipe processors recommend Kw > 64.The target of...

Influence of shock pressure testing on the service life of HDPE piping systems

Author(s) : Ulrich Schulte, Heinz Vogt, Hans-Friedrich Enderle, Dieter Lilge 2010 Vancouver

The completion of a pressure test is mandatory for all new pipe systems. Its purpose is to demonstrate the overall leak-proof condition of the system. In the course of this test, HDPE pipes of SDR 17 class are exposed to high stress loads. In an extensive test programme, all failure mechanisms observed in long-term...

Is electrofusion joining considered a fool-proof process?

Author(s) : Parashar (Perry) Sheth 2010 Vancouver

The author would like to refute the common myth that the joining of polyethylene pipes and fittings by electrofusion method is a fool proof process. This myth is based on the theoretical consideration by many operators that the electrofusion joint integrity is control by the computer processor and independent of the...

Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic piping systems

Author(s) : Davidovski Zoran 2010 Vancouver

The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) deem it important to have an insight into the integral environmental impacts that are encountered during the life-span of particular pipe system applications. With this framework in mind, TEPPFA has set up a project with the Flemish Institute for...

Long Term Material Design Properties for Polypropylene Pipe Grade Resins

Author(s) : Bill Vanhoose, Jeff Biesenberger 2010 Vancouver

While polypropylene (PP) has been widely used in corrugated sewer pipe production in Europe for the past 25+ years, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) remains the dominant material for corrugated sewer pipe production in North America. As such, both short term and long term material design properties have been...

Metal Reinforced Polyethylene Pipes in China

Author(s) : Wei Ruoqi, Li Yu-e 2010 Vancouver

China being the world’s most populous country produces the highest volumes of sewage and waste water and due to rapid increase in industrialization this volume is rising fast. According to the statistics from the National Ministry of Construction, by the end of 2007, the water consumption of the 665 cities in China...

Modern Purchasing Practices

Author(s) : K.Mole 2010 Vancouver

While most of the competition in the pipeline business are investing in research and new developments, offering substantial training courses, ensuring that there is an independent and strict inspection regimes, to advance and increase the successful use of their various products, the HDPE pipe industry is, I believe...

MOLECOR TECNOLOGIA

Author(s) : Ignacio Muñoz de Juan 2010 Vancouver

PVC O pipes : an economical & environmental analysis for water companies and pipe manufacturers. The global crisis has brought new challenges to the water industry. Meanwhile investments in water are nearly unavoidable to maintain or increase the living quality; the real situation is that water companies, either...

New Routes to high Processing Polyethylene Pipe Grades Is it away to PE 125 ?

Author(s) : P.Belloir 2010 Vancouver

About 20 years ago, there was a clear step change in the pressure pipe world  : there came the first PE100. At that time, it was quite a revolution because even the classification should have combination of mechanical properties, PE100 resins became progressively the main used resin in the gas and water...

NEXT FRONTIERIN PE100 PRODUCT DESIGN : A STRUCTURE - PROPERTIES APPROACH

Author(s) : A.Popa 2010 Vancouver

Since its introduction in the fifties, HDPE pressure pipes showed a rapid growth and successful track record in the industry. Different generations of polyethylene products were developed throughout the time to meet increasingly high mechanical performance requirements from pipe industry, end-users and most recent...

Non-Conventional Pipe Laying Techniques: Quantitative Modeling of Total Cost of Installation

Author(s) : H.Haubruge 2010 Vancouver

When considering the total cost of a pipe installation project today, the pipes themselves only represent a minor part, as low as 10% in some cases. This certainly highlights the importance to strive to reduce the cost of pipe installation. Compared to the traditional pipe laying technique in an open trench with...

NOVEL USE OF HDPE PIPE AS A SUBMERGED GRAVITY FLOWS EWER IN TERCEPTOR

Author(s) : J.Holland 2010 Vancouver

Until the mid-1800s, Lake Oswego was a sleepy assembly of homesteads and farms between the Willamette and Tualatin Rivers in Oregon. Today, with a population of just over 35,000, Lake Oswego is considered one of the finest residential communities in Oregon. Located in the northwestern corner of Clackamas County Oregon...

Offshore Flowline Rehabilitation with Spoolable Steel-Reinforced Bi-Modal HDPE Pipe

Author(s) : A.Ethridge 2010 Vancouver

This paper demonstrates an approach for rehabilitation of an offshore welded steel flowline with a spoolable steel-reinforced thermoplastic pipeline system. Traditional thermoplastic materials provide an established low pressure technology for pipeline applications offering enhanced corrosion resistance over...

OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF CORRUGATED HDPE PIPE IN WATER AND AIR

Author(s) : GH.suan 2010 Vancouver

This paper presents a study on the oxidative resistance (OR) of a corrugated HDPE pipe. The oxidation process was carried out in forced air ovens and water baths, to simulate various environments. Elevated temperatures were employed to accelerate the oxidation reactions. Three temperatures (65, 75, and 85oC) were used...

PA PIPES FOR 16 BARS GAS PIPELINES

Author(s) : Frans Scholten and Mannes Wolters 2010 Vancouver

PA11, PA12 and plasticized PA6.12 pipes are interesting candidates for gas transport and distribution pipelines at 16 bars pressure, which is beyond the maximum pressure for PE100 pipeline systems (10 bars). However, PA pipelines are not meant as an alternative to PE pipelines, but to steel pipelines. Therefore,...

PE PIPE PRODUCTION SUPPORTS SAFE WATER SUPPLY IN GHANA

Author(s) : H.Fakhry 2010 Vancouver

Access to safe drinking water is key for human health, but also for the economical development of a country. One of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals ( MDG) is therefore to halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. The surveys regularly carried out by the...

PE pipes making a real diffrenc to peoples lives around the world

Author(s) : Dwallton 2010 Vancouver

Water and sanitation are still denied to millions of people around the world and with climate change and population growth the situation will undoubtedly get worse. Additionally with the , food production is going to become critical and since agriculture currently consumes about supply this is An important question,...

PE-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED PIPE SYSTEMS DN 40 – 10 BAR ACCORDING TO ISO CD 29561 – NEW OPPORTUNITES FOR WATER SUPPLY

Author(s) : Jos Robeyns, Philippe Vanspeybroeck, Steve Sandstrum 2010 Vancouver

ISO CD 29561 applies to glass fibre reinforced polyethylene pipes and fittings intended to be used for the conveyance of water under pressure for general purposes, as well as for the supply of drinking water. The pipeline may be buried, above ground, or outside buildings. The temperature of the medium to be...

PE100+ Association’s Quality Promotional Activities in China

Author(s) : R.Bresser 2010 Vancouver

PE has been so successful in the gas and water distribution pipe markets of Europe largely because of its proven quality and reliability compared to other pipe materials. This has in part been due to the work of organisations such as the PE100+ Association in supporting high quality specifications and auditing...

PENT test versus time to rupture curve for HDPE

Author(s) : E.Nezbedova 2010 Vancouver

The service life for HDPE (PE 80, PE 100) materials used in plastic pipes application covers a time span of up 50 years. The new type of PE 100 (PE 100 RC) should achieve the life time over 100 years. Conventional hydrostatic pressure test to qualify a new resin must last 104 hours (ISO 1167). In the last twenty years...

PERFORMANCE EVALUATI ON OF 48” DIAMETER CORRUGATED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE UNDER 315,000 LBS RAIL CAR LOADING

Author(s) : Coombs Shawn 2010 Vancouver

The Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) sponsored testing of 48” diameter corrugated high density polyethylene (HPDE) pipe under heavy haul railroad loading with minimum cover to field verify LRFD calculated values. Testing was conducted at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing (FAST) at Transportation Technology...

Performance of Pipes during Earthquakes

Author(s) : Camille George Rubeiz 2010 Vancouver

This paper summarizes the performance of water and gas piping systems during six earthquakes in the US, Japan, Thailand and Columbia. Also, the paper will present data from the UK and Sweden about the performance of pipes in non-earthquake environments. The paper will assist design engineers and owners in selecting...

Pipe made of polyamide 12 (PA12): The right choice for trenchless installation

Author(s) : Pete Rieck 2010 Vancouver

In recent years pipes of polyamide 12 (PA12) have been thoroughly investigated for high pressure gas installations with operation pressures up to 20 bar (290 psi). After overall positive results from feasibility studies and various test installations, the gas industry followed up with its first service installations...

Plastic Interior Fuel Gas Piping Systems: Now or Never?

Author(s) : Robert Torbin 2010 Vancouver

The home building industry has been focused on keeping the price of new housing “affordable” to the majority of American consumers. This market mantra has, to some degree, affected the quality of new construction. In the area of piping technology, there has been a notable movement away from metallic piping systems...

PLASTIC PIPE SYSTEMS FOR PETROL STATIONS AND BEYOND; STRETCHING THE BOUNDARIES OF PLASTIC PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Lars Selling and Ingrid Andersson, Christophe Salles and Lars Höjer 2010 Vancouver

Kungsors Plast AB, in co-operation with Borealis, has pioneered the underground plastic piping for petrol filling stations with the first polyethylene piping used by Shell Sweden in 1981. The retail sector with petrol filling stations has used PE-based underground piping since the early 1980s. With increased awareness...

POLYAMIDE 12 NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OPERATING AT PRESSURES GREATER THAN 125 PSIG

Author(s) : Richard Wolf, Koji Nakamura 2010 Vancouver

In 2004 a project was initiated by UBE Industries, Ltd. to evaluate the feasibility for use of polyamide 12 in natural gas distribution systems in the United States. The objective of the project was to develop a polyamide 12 natural gas distribution system capable of operating at pressures greater than that imposed by...

POLYETHYLENE CLOSE-FIT-LINER - MATERIAL PROP-ERTIES AND LONG-TERM FAILURE BEHAVIOR

Author(s) : A.Frank 2010 Vancouver

In the present work a comprehensive material characterization of a commercially PE 100 Close-Fit-Liner was conducted, in which the main focus always was given on a correlation of the material properties of a conventional pipe and the final state of the redeformed CFL, which may change due to considerable additional...

POLYETHYLENE WILL GROW WITH NON - CONVENTIONAL PIPE INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES : PE 100 - RC DEVELOPMENT MILES TONES & PERSPECTIVES

Author(s) : E.Laurent 2010 Vancouver

Polyethylene pipes are particularly suited to non-conventional pipe installation thanks to their flexibility, deformability, and availability in long lengths. However, the widespread use of modern relining techniques or fast and non-disturbing pipe installation practices call for guaranties of performance,...

POLYOLEFIN PIPE GRADES WITH IMPROVED RESISTANCE TO WATER DISINFECTANTS

Author(s) : H.Vogt 2010 Vancouver

Water is essential for human life. More than one billion people worldwide do not have access to safe water supply. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 4,000 people die each day from diarrheal diseases resulting from unsafe water and lack of sanitation. Ninety percent are children under the age...

POLYOLEFINS PIPE SOLUTIONS FOR GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : C.Salles 2010 Vancouver

Geothermal energy is broadly recognised as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and virtually inexhaustive heat source, as well as an increasingly credible alternative to traditional heating solutions. Only a small portion of the potential energy is actually used. The fastest growing segment, with very...

POPELAR SHIFTING, RATE-PROCESS METHOD, AND BROWN PROJECTIONS OF SERVICE LIFE OF POLYETHYLENE (PE) GAS PIPE

Author(s) : D.Woods 2010 Vancouver

Various methods have been proposed and used to estimate the service life of Polyethylene (PE) piping in natural gas distribution. These include the Rate Process Method (RPM), various bi-directional shift functions, including the Popelar Shift Functions (PSF), and the shift functions of Brown and Lu. More recently,...

PROTECTION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPESAGAINST RODENTS

Author(s) : Netemad 2010 Vancouver

The natural gas pipeline network of Iran is estimated to be 30000 Kilometer. In this network polyethylene pipes of various sizes and dimensions are widely used. It is reported that polyethylene pipes with diameter of 25 mm are attacked and damaged by rodents in most cases. In this survey the protection of gas pipes...

Pultrusion Technique for Braided Fabric Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Tube

Author(s) : Asami Nakai, Yoshitaka Tanaka, Akio Ohtani, Shigeyoshi Matsubara, Louis Laberge Lebel, Hiroyuki Hamada 2010 Vancouver

Pultrusion process is one of the composite production methods that have been used for mass production of uniform profiles. However, there are two problems that are commonly found in pultrusion products; one of which is its anisotropic mechanical properties. This anisotropicity stems from the alignment...

Recent Changes to North American PVC and PVCO Pressure-Pipe Standards

Author(s) : John F. Houle 2010 Vancouver

In North America, municipal pressure-pipe specifications typically require conformance to standards published by two organizations : 1. In Canada, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 2. In the United States, the American Water Works Association (AWWA). While there are related standards written by other...

Reliability of PVC-U Three Layer Pipes with Recycled Solid Core

Author(s) : Takashi KURIYAMA and Norio HIMUKAI 2010 Vancouver

In order to make clear the reliability of PVC-U recycled pipes in relation to the three-layer structure, we described the deformation and fracture mechanism of wall of pipes based on non-destructive techniques of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The results showed that the multiple necking deformation occurred...

RESIDUAL QUALITY OF FIRST GENERATION PE GAS AND WATER PIPES

Author(s) : F.Scholten 2010 Vancouver

Segments from 32 mm gas service pipes installed in 1975-1976 and from 40 mm water service pipes installed in 1967-1968 in Germany have been excavated and tested for residual quality. Two different HDPE resin populations discovered among the German gas pipes were also found among excavated Dutch gas pipes. Internal...

S4 to full-scale test correlation: new insights from an ‘open source’ RCP model

Author(s) : Patrick Leevers, Christos Argyrakis 2010 Vancouver

There is renewed interest in the correlation between critical pressures from lab-scale (S4) and full-scale RCP tests. The standard, supposedly material-independent correlation factor does provide a lower bound for data from many PE grades, but for some grades it is overconservative and for PA12 its applicability has...

SCRATCHES IN POLYETHYLENE PIPES – SENSITIVITY TO SCRATCHING AND INFLUENCE ON LIFETIME

Author(s) : L.Karlsson 2010 Vancouver

Over the last years, the question has been raised how scratches and indentations effects the strength and lifetime of pressurised pipes. A method for testing the pipe surface’s sensitivity to this kind of damage was devised, and the scratch sensitivity of different polyethylene grades and coating materials was...

Single-Reactor Bimodal PE-100 HDPE Resin for Pressure Pipe Applications

Author(s) : P.Micic 2010 Vancouver

Bimodal HDPE resins exhibit superior performance characteristics relative to traditional unimodal resins for polyethylene pressure pipe applications and have been the resin of choice for PE-100 pipe markets. These PE-100 resins provide an improved balance of stiffness, slow crack growth resistance, and resistance to...

Storm Water Management - is it still a need or already a must?

Author(s) : Piotr Falkowski 2010 Vancouver

For many years storm water was treated by municipalities and communities as minor problem. Therefore if a decision maker should decide where to invest , what to build first than drinking water supply or foul-water discharge system was a top priority. No negative impact of storm-water to human beings was announced. It...

STRESS INTENSITY EFFECT ON SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN SCRATCHED POLYETHYLENE PIPE

Author(s) : J.Zhou 2010 Vancouver

Stress intensity in Polyethylene (PE) pipe is determined by applied stress, defect size, pipe diameter and DR (dimension ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness). For the same stress, stress intensity varies as the defect size and the pipe diameter change. Defects may be introduced into the pipe wall after it is...

Studies to Theorize on the Minimum 100 Years Lifetime of the Polyethylene Piping System for Water Supply

Author(s) : Takashi Kuriyama, Kenji Mizukawa, Hiroyuki Kurio, Hiroaki Sakamoto 2010 Vancouver

The Great Hanshin Earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1995, caused devastating damages to a large number of architectural structures such as high-rise apartment houses, and civil structures such as roads and bridges. This earthquake triggered the review of the quake-resistance standards of buildings and civil...

Success of Thermoplastic Valves in the Chemical Industry

Author(s) : Riccardo Barbone, Georg Fischer Piping Systems, Switzerland 2010 Vancouver

Over 50 years ago, the transportation of chemicals represented one of the first applications for plastic piping systems. Since then, plastic piping system products have continually been developed in accordance with market needs and today are uniquely positioned to provide suitable materials as well as cost-effective...

Successful application of PP pipes for Ultra Pure Water pipeline

Author(s) : Albert Lueghamer, Markus Haager, Peter Eitzenberger 2010 Vancouver

Ultra pure water (UPW) is an important resource in several industry sectors. A project in The Netherlands is presented where a pipeline for the transportation of UPW was recently built using PP pipes with a diameter of 280 mm (SDR 17.6). The project was unique in several ways. While typically UPW piping systems are...

Tensile-Creep Behavior of Polypropylene Block Copolymer Resin for Non-pressure, Sanitary Corrugated Pipe for Drainage

Author(s) : Adel N Haddad 2010 Vancouver

The short-term tensile-creep behavior of polypropylene block copolymer and high density polyethylene resins in double and triple-wall corrugated pipes for water drainage and sanitation was investigated. The investigations were conducted at three stresses, with three temperatures at each stress, for a duration of 1,000...

THE ADVANTAGES OF METALLOCENE - CATALYSED TECHNOLOGY FOR SILANE GRAFTING AND CROSS LINKING OF POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : D.Libert 2010 Vancouver

Silane method is a preferred technique of crosslinking polyethylene to modify its properties. Higher ESCR as well as thermal resistance should no longer be demonstrated. Conventional HDPE, LLDPE or LDPE are known to offer different sensitivity to level of silane, curing time and temperature; rate of crosslinking and...

The BFF Test: An Un-Notched Stress Crack Test for Evaluating Resin Blends Containing Recycled HDPE for Use in Corrugated Drainage Pipe

Author(s) : G.R.Baryluk 2010 Vancouver

A large amount of hydraulics testing has been done to evaluate the Manning’s “n” coefficient for profile wall high density polyethylene pipe with corrugated exterior. Testing has been done on the following diameters : 12, 15, 18, 24 and 36 inch. The earlier testing was done on smaller diameters and...

The BFF Test: An Un-Notched Stress Crack Test for Evaluating Resin Blends Containing Recycled HDPE for Use in Corrugated Drainage Pipe

Author(s) : Richard Thomas and David Cuttino 2010 Vancouver

The BFF test is an un-notched, constant load, stress crack test performed at elevated temperatures (70 or 80ºC) in deionized water. The test is a combination of the BAM test, developed in Germany in the early 1990s, the Florida Department of Transportation protocol for 100 year service lifetimes, and uses a dumb bell...

The Impact of Colorants in a Piping System

Author(s) : White G. Jee, Sam D’Uva, Noshir Khandwawala, and Nitin Tiwari 2010 Vancouver

In designing and installing a total piping system, there are many aspects to consider when one selects the various components that comprise a piping system. One aspect that has been successfully utilized in the plastics piping industry is the use of colorants to identify the targeted end-use application of the piping...

THE NEW FRONTIER OF NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION: A CASE STUDY OF BIMODAL PE 2708 GAS PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : B.Moidel 2010 Vancouver

The frontier of natural gas distribution 1s to improve the safety and integrity of pipeline systems.The new trend is to use large diameter polyethylene gas pipes for new installation and the replacement of aging metallic gas pipe. Dominion East Ohio Gas Company (Dominion), a subsidiary of Dominion Resources and a...

THE POLYETHYLENE SUSTAINABLE LIFE-CYCLE

Author(s) : M. Rozental-Evesque, D. Geoffray P. Jacq, B. Rabaud 2010 Vancouver

SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT has demonstrated that the longevity of potable water connections using HDPE (blue stripes or black) is significantly shortened under the cumulative action of the 3 following factors: - high water temperature- disinfectant type and concentration (chlorine or chlorine dioxide)- high pressure To these...

THE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY SKINNED POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND HIGH ULTRAVIOLET (UV) REGIONS

Author(s) : J.Bowman 2010 Vancouver

Polyethylene (PE) resins are known to be sensitive to both sunlight and high ambient temperatures, such that excessive exposure can degrade the material. The inclusion of stabiliser packages into the polymer controls this potential for damage from outdoor aging. Reported in this paper are results on the stability and...

The Test Method of Carbon Black Particle Diameter for PE pipes applying for gas

Author(s) : Li Yu-e, Wu Zhijun, Hua Ye, Sun Jiawen 2010 Vancouver

As the polyethylene pipes widely used in the gas fields, their long-term life is demanded more and more strict. The technical requirement about carbon black particle size was defined in the revised ISO 4437 :2007 as one of requirements of material. We can see that carbon black particle size of the compound is an...

The Use of the Stepped Isothermal Method for Estimating the Long-Term Creep Modulus, Creep Strain and Strength of Polyethylene Pipe Resins

Author(s) : R.Thomas 2010 Vancouver

The Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) is a special form of Time-Temperature-Superposition (TTS) that has been used to predict long-term creep behavior from very short-term tests (~ 24 hours). A single test specimen undergoes a series of short-term (10,000 seconds) creep tests, each separated by 7ºC. At the end of the...

The War on Climate Change: How Using Large Diameter HDPE Pipes Significantly Reduces Carbon Emissions.

Author(s) : V.Samaras 2010 Vancouver

In an era when global warming is having a significant effect on our climate and catastrophic weather events are devastating local communities, the use of innovation is of vital importance. It is a fact that as green issues continues to rise up the political agenda; the water industry is being forced to look towards...

Towards a methodology for designing RCP-resistant polyethylenes using batch scale test methods

Author(s) : P.Leevers 2010 Vancouver

This paper outlines a PE100 design methodology which gives central importance to the separate modelling and measurement of plane-strain and plane-stress dynamic fracture resistance. The former is difficult to measure but can be estimated from weight-average molecular weight; the latter is related to high-rate...

TRANSPORT OF HYDROGEN WITH POLYETHYLENE NATURAL GAS PIPES

Author(s) : M.Backman 2010 Vancouver

As is the case with all fossil energies, natural gas reserves are limited, and it’s commonly admitted that the production peak before depletion is expected to be reached during the coming decades. Research concerning possible alternative sources of energy to natural gas for the future is therefore ongoing; one...

Trenchless renovation & installation of municipal pipelines in China using PE pipes

Author(s) : W.Zhiwei 2010 Vancouver

The availability of high quality PE100 polyethylene pipe in China has lead to a rapid growth in the use of trenchless technology for the renovation and installation of Municipal pipelines. This paper describes a number of examples of trenchless technology projects using PE pipe including the long distance directional...

Understanding the Importance of AASHTO’s National Transportation Product Evaluation (NTPEP) Audit Program

Author(s) : Katheryn L. Malusky 2010 Vancouver

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) offers a technical service to highway transportation departments and several types of industries, known as the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP). This Program allows member departments to efficiently perform...

Understanding, then avoiding in-service failures linked to the use of the squeeze-off flow stopping technique

Author(s) : Derek Muckle 2010 Vancouver

Polyethylene pipes are widely used across the utilities sector for the safe, reliable, transportation of gas or water under pressure. The success of the material in being adopted is partly due to the ability to treat it as an engineering polymer whose properties and failure modes are well understood, predictable, and...

Us of PE-RT for Industrial Pipe Applications

Author(s) : D.Schramm 2010 Vancouver

Developments in catalyst and process technology have resulted in a new, highly differentiated product family based on ethylene-a-olefin copolymers. This paper reports the key attributes of those materials. These polymers form the basis for a new class of Polyethylene materials: PE-RT (Polyethylene of Raised...

USE OF PE 100 WITH A MINIMUM REQUIRED STRENGTH (MRS) AND CATEGORIZED REQUIRED STRENGTH (CRS) RATING IN A NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Author(s) : G.Palermo 2010 Vancouver

Manitoba Hydro is the electrical and natural gas utility for the province of Manitoba. A project to expand the existing natural gas system was initiated in 2005 which required the installation of a 29 kilometer (18 miles) main to connect a new town to the existing system. Project financial restrictions could not be...

USING RCP DATA TO DESIGN POLYETHYLENE GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES

Author(s) : S.Sandstrum 2010 Vancouver

Historically, polyethylene (PE) gas pipe systems in the United States have operated at service conditions for which the likelihood of a failure due to a rapid crack propagation (RCP) event has been nearly non-existent. The exceptional safety record for PE piping systems in this critical application has resulted in a...

Utilization of Notched Ring Test for larger diameter pipes and fittings

Author(s) : Sooho Pyo, Junghyun Nam, Yoonsang Kim and Sunwoong Choi 2010 Vancouver

The Notched Ring Test (NRT) has been recently developed to measure slow crack growth (SCG) in plastics pipes and fittings. The NRT specimen in the form of a notched full ring is directly obtained from the extruded pipe or injection molded fitting and has demonstrated its effectiveness in generating slow crack growth...

WHOLE LIFE COSTING OF WATER PIPIELINE IN SHANGHAI, CHINA

Author(s) : Xuzhaokai, Chenzhihui, Zhengxiaoming 2010 Vancouver

For a water pipe network, the whole life costs should be considered in the selection of the most cost effective water supply pipe material. The whole life costs consist of the material costs, construction costs, the operating costs and the maintaining costs over its whole life through to its disposal – that is, the...

Fracture Mechanics Based Lifetime Prediction of PE Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : R.Lang 2010 Vancouver

PVC Twin wall pipes, a new concept

Author(s) : Joel Fumire 2010 Vancouver



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