PPCA conference : 2018 Las-Vegas

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.
You have access to a generic search, or to an advanced search, by preset keywords.

A new flexible jointing method of plastic (PE) pipes

Author(s) : Yilaing He, Tianjun Zhang 2018 Las-Vegas

A new electrofusion PE belt is developed by reinforcing it with various layers of steel mesh. It’s of sandwich structure, consisting of steel mesh reinforcement, heating wire and polyethylene. One or more layers of steel mesh is encapsulated in the middle, and heating wire is embedded onto “inner side” of the...

A RECENT SURVEY OF WATER MAIN FAILURES IN THE US AND CANADA

Author(s) : Steven Folkman 2018 Las-Vegas

A recent survey again confirms that PVC pipe has the lowest break rate when compared with break rates of ductile and cast iron, asbestos cement, steel, and concrete pipe. Other results of interest to water utilities and engineers are discussed. During 2017, Utah State University conducted a survey of utilities across...

ACCELERATED PIPE TEST METHODS TO EVALUATE PE 100-RC MATERIALS – POSSIBILITIES FOR ISO STANDARDISATION

Author(s) : Thomas R. Kratochvilla, Raimund Eremiasch, Christoph Bruckner 2018 Las-Vegas

In the last years effort has been made to develop and standardise new accelerated test methods to evaluate PE 100-RC materials in short times in form of test bars. The two most important developments, the cracked round bar test (CRB test) and the strain hardening test (SH test) were published as final ISO standards in...

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR VOLUME DEFECTS IN WELDED ASSEMBLIES, DETECTED AND SIZED USING THE PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC TECHNIQUE

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Manuel TESSIER, Romuald BOUAFFRE 2018 Las-Vegas

Given the virtual absence of available up-to-date results regarding the acceptance criteria for defects at electro-welding interfaces, a study has been launched by GRTgaz RICE with the two-fold aim of confirming the accuracy of the PAUT technique for the detection and sizing of calibrated pit-shaped defects implanted...

AGING MECHANISM OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE MATERIAL IN CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Alex Stolarz, Gerald Pinter 2018 Las-Vegas

Accelerated aging experiments by the immersion of a commercial polyethylene (PE) pipe grade in 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and in 100 ppm of hypochlorite (HOCl) solution at 60 °C were performed. An additional immersion test was conducted in 1 ppm of ClO2 at 40 °C. The exposure parameters were continuously...

ASSESSING THE REMAINING SERVICE LIFETIME OF PE PIPES: AN AUSTRALIAN CASE STUDY

Author(s) : Nolene Byrne, Rasike De Silva, Keith Lenghaus, Tim Hilditch 2018 Las-Vegas

Plastic pipes have been utilized in the Australian gas distribution network since the early 1970s. The most common plastic type found in Australia is polyethylene (PE), although nylon is extensively used in New South Wales. Early installation of PE pipe was completed using the first generation high density type PE50...

BIOFILM GROWTH AND THE IMPACT IT HAS ON THE HYDRAULIC CAPACITY OF PIPELINES

Author(s) : Stefanus Johannes van Vuuren 2018 Las-Vegas

Biofilm establishes itself over a short period of time in all pipelines conveying raw and treated water. Depending on the type of biofouling, it is documented that it will inevitability lead to a reduction in the hydraulic capacity. Since none of the current design relationships used to calculate the friction loss in...

BIOMIMETIC DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR THE PIPE ARCHITECTURE OF TOMORROW

Author(s) : Gerald Pinter, Florian Arbeiter, Johannes Wiener, Andreas Frank, Otmar Kolednik 2018 Las-Vegas

In order to further increase the fracture toughness of pipes, biomimetic layer design of the pipe wall can be used. Therein, soft polymer interlayers can act as crack-arresters in a matrix of stiffer and inherently more brittle polymers. The effectiveness of the crack arresting role of soft interlayers in a...

C-PVC-O, PUSHING LIMITS BEYOND IN MOLECULAR ORIENTATION

Author(s) : Ignacio Muñoz 2018 Las-Vegas

During the last years PVC-O has become a popular product in pipe business due to the huge improvements of mechanical properties of PVC after orientation. At the same time, CPVC has become an important choice for hot water conduits in in-house applications. Molecor has started a research program to evaluate the...

CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-USE POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE RECYCLATE BLENDS FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Markus Gall, Reinhold W. Lang, Joerg Fischer, Ansgar Niehoff, Steven Schmidt 2018 Las-Vegas

Despite recent efforts in promoting the utilization of recycled polymeric materials for more diverse and more advanced applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps with regards to the applicability of certain recyclate types for specific “re-use” purposes. When it comes to pipe applications, for...

CHINA PLASTIC PIPE INDUSTRY -- TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Author(s) : Wang Zhanjie 2018 Las-Vegas

As the largest production country, with numerous applications, China’s plastic pipe industry is developing steadily to meet the demand and needs. This paper analyzes the current situation and barriers, and proposes the breakthroughs to achieve a sustainable, stable and healthy development of China’s plastic pipe...

CHLORINE DIOXIDE RESISTANT HDPE MECHANISM, ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND SOLUTIONS

Author(s) : M. Boerakker, S. van Mierloo, D. v. Beek, R. Schipper, P. Voets, M. Soliman, K. Jacobson, D. Lukes, B. Rabaud, F. Zraick 2018 Las-Vegas

HDPE pipes are used for standard pressurized water pipes, offering an excellent solution for safe transport of (drinking) water. The HDPE pipe market is growing globally. Especially in countries that suffer from water scarcity, surface water and water from rivers have to be used for drinking water supply. To guarantee...

CONSIDERATIONS WHEN RESTRAINING MOLECULARLY ORIENTED PVC PIPE

Author(s) : G.M. Quesada, K.H. Steinbruck 2018 Las-Vegas

The benefits of molecularly oriented PVC pipe (PVC-O) are well known and documented. Numerous studies covering improved pipe impact, toughness, hydraulics, and life cycle have been published. There is less information about PVC-O pipe under pipeline hydraulic forces. The objective of this paper is to identify design...

CPVC APPLICATION IN THE FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM IN CHINA

Author(s) : Jiang Tongjun, Fu Zhimin, Yang Yuanjin 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper introduces the application of CPVC pipe in fire sprinkler systems in China. The advantages and differences of CPVC pipe versus to galvanized steel pipes, the improvement of related laws and regulations and the market outlook are discussed. The overall result is a change in the upstream and downstream...

DESIGN AND QUALIFICATION OF PA-PERT PIPE FOR OIL AND GAS TRANSPORTATION

Author(s) : Liang Yu, Akshay Ponda, Dane Chang 2018 Las-Vegas

Following the development of US shale oil and gas production since 2007, the demand for thermoplastic pipes with better corrosion resistance, and lower installation and operation cost than carbon steel pipe, has been growing significantly. Nylon 12 has been qualified for hydrocarbon transportation in offshore flexible...

DESIGN OF LARGE DIAMETER BURIED PIPES

Author(s) : Anders Andtbacka, Frans Alferink, Peter Sejersen 2018 Las-Vegas

The behavior of buried plastic pipes is already well described in standards and technical specifications and as well as proven in real life conditions. Plastics pipes in diameters up to around 400 mm are already in use for more than 60 years and pipes with larger diameters for more than 20 years now. All with good...

DETERMINATION OF THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF PA12 PIPE GRADES

Author(s) : Mario Messiha, Andreas Frank, Isabelle J. Berger, Jan Heimink, Hermann van Laak, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter 2018 Las-Vegas

Since the last decade polyamide 12 (PA12) has been successfully introduced as material for SDR 11 gas piping systems up to 18 bar, representing itself as an attractive alternative to steel pipes for high-pressure applications. Practical experience has confirmed that beside the higher strength, PA12 pipe grades also...

DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLIC PRESSURE FATIGUE (CPF) TEST METHOD

Author(s) : Ernest Lever 2018 Las-Vegas

Six different polyethylene materials were tested using Cyclic Pressure Fatigue (CPF) as the accelerating process to correlate the results to conventional long-term hydrostatic test results that were previously developed as part of the material qualification process. The designation of the materials was unknown to the...

DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE-DIAMETER CONTINUOUS-FIBER- REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : Fengliang Jiang, Nian Wu 2018 Las-Vegas

This article discusses the development of the technique in producing large-diameter, medium-and-lowpressure water-delivery pipes. The continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic tapes perfectlyimpregnated with thermoplastic resin are wound layer by layer to form three-layer fibre reinforced polyethylene(PE) composite...

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYETHYLENE BALL VALVE TO PURSUE ROBUSTNESS

Author(s) : Ryosuke Nagahisa, Shinichi Katoh 2018 Las-Vegas

We investigated the possibility of using a greaseless polyethylene (PE) ball valve by applying a coating on it to improve the valve’s robustness. In order to verify the valve’s operability, we performed initial-operating-torque, abrasion, and dust tests on both grease-applied and coatingapplied ball valves. These...

DEVELOPMENT STATUS AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF COMPOSITE INSULATING PLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : HU Fa, LI Yue, GAO Yuanjie, ZHE Dongmei, WEI Ruoqi 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper expounds the development status of composite insulating pipe in the heating and chemical fields from the aspects of materials, structure and application. Combined with the relevant standards and technical requirements, the performance advantages and the key evaluation methods such as axial shear strength,...

DISCOVER: PLASTICS

Author(s) : Davidovski Zoran 2018 Las-Vegas

To get a deeper insight in why plastic pipes systems in some cases are deselected by designers, installers and users, European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) initiated a research including interviews in four pilot countries: Poland, France, Germany and the UK. The first phase was concentrating on...

EFFECT OF BETA-NUCLEATION ON AGING AND CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYPROPYLENE EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED WATER

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Paul J. Freudenthaler, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang, Susan C. Mantell 2018 Las-Vegas

This research addresses the effect of nucleation on the global aging behavior and the fatigue crack growth (FCG) resistance of commercial alpha- and beta-nucleated polypropylene random copolymer pipe grades (PP-R) when exposed to chlorinated water (5 mg/l free chlorine) at an elevated temperature of 60°C. Comparing...

EFFECT OF CARBON BLACK DISTRIBUTION ON POLYETHYLENE PIPES

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Nisha Preschilla, Birkan Eryigit 2018 Las-Vegas

Pipes with inhomogeneous CB distribution showed 80% less elongation than pipes with homogenously distributed CB. Polymer domains with less or no CB (windows) showed delamination from the polymer matrix as the material elongated, finally leading to fracture much earlier than expected. In this study, we investigated...

EFFECT OF CARBON BLACK, COMPOUNDING AND PIPE EXTRUSION ON THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH PENT TEST RESULT

Author(s) : Adriana Velasquez, Dr. Dane Chang, Dr. Siddharth Athreya 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper studies the PENT results and how they vary based on sample preparation, equipment used, technique to place the sample as well as the number of heating cycles that the resin goes through after it leaves the manufacturing facility including those cycles needed to pre-compound virgin resin with a color...

EFFECT OF ECCENTRICITY ON THE MEASUREMENT OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE RESISTANCE OF PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Birkan Eryigit, Senthil K. Kaliappan 2018 Las-Vegas

The effect of eccentricity on the failure time of pipes under hydrostatic pressure test has a significant magnitude that it can easily mislead the evaluation of pipes according to requirement of ISO 4427-2. Therefore, authors propose a maximum relative eccentricity limit of 0.015, even lower, for pipes being tested...

ENGINEERING AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PIPELINE APPLICATIONS UTILIZING HDPE RECYCLED MATERIALS

Author(s) : John Kurdziel, Michael Pluimer 2018 Las-Vegas

Corrugated HDPE pipes have been successfully used for decades for sewers, culverts and land drainage applications and are advantageous due to their durability and service life in a variety of installation conditions. Pipes used for highway and storm sewer applications typically require stricter material standards than...

EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF STANDARD AND ACCELERATED SLOW CRACK GROWTH DETERMINATION METHODOLOGIES: EFFECT OF THE COMONOMER TYPE INFLUENCE

Author(s) : Carlos Domínguez, Álvaro Pérez, Nuria Robledo, Cristina González, Beatriz Paredes, Rafael A. García-Muñoz 2018 Las-Vegas

Last methodologies for fast evaluation of the SCG resistance on polyethylene pipe materials are analyzed in this work and compared with traditional PENT and FNCT tests. Strain Hardening (SH), Crack Round Bar (CRB) and Accelerated Creep Test (ACT) will be good alternatives for evaluating PE100RC resins. Moreover, SH...

EXTRUSION OF THICK WALL PIPES USING A NEW BIMODAL PE 4710/PE 100 RESIN

Author(s) : Vivek Rohatg, Gregor Hiesgen, Mark J. Lamborn, Ashish M. Sukhadia, Douglas E. Simpson, David W. Borrego, Pamela L. Maeger 2018 Las-Vegas

Maintaining dimensions within specifications is problematic for the extrusion of large diameter thick-wall polyethylene (PE) pipe (> 75 mm wall) due to sag caused by insufficient resin melt strength. However, sag can be controlled through careful resin selection and optimization of the pipe cooling process. This...

FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH TESTING IN CHLORINATED WATER AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES - TEST EQUIPMENT AND TEST PROCEDURE

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang 2018 Las-Vegas

In the present paper, a novel test system for conducting fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments under superimposed mechanical-environmental conditions is presented. FCG experiments were performed on a polypropylene (PP) grade and a short-glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 (PA-GF) grade as model materials. The...

Field test of Glass fiber reinforced polyethylene pipe system at soften ground

Author(s) : Mitsuaki TOKIYOSHI, Gentaro TAKAHARA, Joji HINOBAYASHI, Toshinori KAWABATA, Takashi KURIYAMA 2018 Las-Vegas

Glass fiber reinforced polyethylene pipes and fittings are controlled for bending characteristics (Strength and stiffness) for vertical and axial directions of pipe by spiral cross winding method. Generally, to use this method, it takes much stronger for vertical strength than axials cause of extruded direction,...

GUIDELINES FOR CORRUGATED HDPE PIPES MANUFACTURED WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS FOR HIGHWAY CULVERT AND STORM DRAIN APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer, Richard Thomas 2018 Las-Vegas

Over the past decade, there have been several key research projects to evaluate the performance of corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with post-consumer and postindustrial recycled materials for highway and railroad drainage applications. Three of these projects were recently completed and published (NCHRP Project...

HARMONIZING THE EUROPEAN HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS

Author(s) : Ilari Aho, Volker Meyer, Peter Sejersen 2018 Las-Vegas

The lack of a cross-border acceptance of the approval of the hygienic requirements for plastic pipes systems is inefficient and expensive for the industry. The costs for testing of a pipe system range from a few thousand Euro to more than €30k /reference 3, 4/. The European Plastic Pipe and Fitting Association...

HDPE Pipe as a Solution to Utilities Operating on a Manage to Fail Basis

Author(s) : Sarah Eisenstat, Peter Dyke 2018 Las-Vegas

Many cities in the US are operating their water utility on a “manage to fail” basis, meaning they are replacing >100-year-old pipes at a cycle time of over 150 years. At this rate, most of the pipes will have failed before they can be replaced. Ft. Wayne, IN made the realization that PE pipe is the solution due...

HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE): AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIRST EVER ASME BPVC SECTION III, CLASS 3 NUCLEAR PIPING INSTALLATION

Author(s) : Ali Al Hammadi, Shane R. Schuessler, Mohamed Ali Awadh Jaber 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper presents the advancements of HDPE piping materials, design and installation for use in ASME Class 3 piping systems at nuclear power plants. The paper will specifically introduce details of the first ever ASME Class III nuclear new build use of Class 3 HDPE pipe and fittings at the Emirates Nuclear Energy...

HIGH MODULUS PP TANKS DELIVERS PRACTICAL & COST EFFECTIVE SEWAGE TREATMENT TO RURAL INDONESIA

Author(s) : Marc van Loo (Dr.), Constant Van Aerschot, KumHoong Lou 2018 Las-Vegas

In many parts of rural developing Asia and even some parts of Africa, sewerage from households is often discharged directly to the surrounding. This unfortunate fact means that many waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid continue to afflict these communities. Numerous efforts from governments,...

INCREASING HDPE BUTT FUSION PRODUCTIVITY BY OPTIMIZING THE COOL TIME BASED ON THERMAL MASS CHARACTERISTICS WITHOUT COMPROMISING JOINT STRENGTH

Author(s) : Amanda Hawkins, Jason Lawrence, Xiangli Meng 2018 Las-Vegas

High Density Polyethylene pipes are used in various applications due to the material’s superior chemical resistance, pressure capability, and ductility. For the material to perform at the optimal design criteria, the connections and fabrications must be fused using repeatable procedures that specify proper fusion...

INNOVATIONS IN PRODUCTION OF CORRUGATED PIPES

Author(s) : J. Vlachopoulos, M. A. Lupke 2018 Las-Vegas

A very tight-fitting bell-and-spigot inline coupler, minimizing the gap between connecting pipe segments, and a space efficient pulsating corrugator, requiring just three mold block pairs, were developed. The author of a recent article in New York Times [1] claims that some 300 Billion dollars are needed to repair...

INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF THE ATLANTA BRAVES BASEBALL FIELD

Author(s) : Jim Goddard, Issam Khoury, Mark Heinlein 2018 Las-Vegas

The Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball team built a new stadium north of Atlanta, Georgia. The field drainage design required the removal of 75mm (3 inches) of rainfall an hour and a system for warming or cooling the field using air blown through the drainage system and field profile using heat from pipe buried...

INNOVATIVE MILLIMETER WAVES TECHNOLOGY FOR MEASURING DIAMETER, OVALITY, WALL THICKNESS, AND SAGGING OF LARGE PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : Christian Schalich 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper introduces a new technology based on millimeter waves. It provides a noncontact, non-destructive, online measurement of inner and outer diameter, ovality, wall thicknesses, and sagging (sagging of the melt during solidification at a too high viscosity) of large plastic pipes during the extrusion...

INTRODUCTION OF LARGE DIA PROFILED PE/PP PIPES FOR INNOVATIVE PIPED DISTRIBUTION NETWORK (PDN) FOR IRRIGATION IN INDIA

Author(s) : C. B. Dandekar 2018 Las-Vegas

Agriculture is the major occupation practiced in India, and irrigation is therefore a vital part of the entire water budget of the country. India possesses only 4% of the total world’s fresh water resource, of which, more than 80% is consumed solely in the Agriculture Sector (Dhawan, 2017). Canal based distribution...

INVESTIGATION OF THE CREEP FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF POLYAMIDE PIPES

Author(s) : Hiroto Taguchi, Kaori Numata 2018 Las-Vegas

We elucidated the creep failure behavior of polyamide pipes. We conducted the hydrostatic test and Notched Pipe Test (NPT) at 80 and 90 °C for up to 10000 h for PA pipes whose creep failure behavior has not been fully elucidated yet. In the tests, the change in the failure mode from ductile failure to brittle...

INVESTIGATION OF THE FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF POLYETHYLENE ELECTROFUSION SOCKETS

Author(s) : Isabelle J. Berger, Andreas Frank, Gerald Pinter, David Nitsche, Dirk Petry 2018 Las-Vegas

Electrofusion (EF) sockets constitute a well-established and practically proven technology for the joining of polyethylene (PE) pressure pipes. As for the pipes, the potential lifetime of such welding connections is beside other properties also depending on the resistance against slow crack growth (SCG). The current...

LABORATORY DEVICE FOR CHECKING THE THERMAL ENERGY DELIVERED BY THE ELECTROFUSION FITTINGS

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Adil BOUJLAL, Aymeric LOPITAUX, Bertrand SEVRE 2018 Las-Vegas

A special concept has been developed by GRTgaz Research and Innovation Center for Energy (RICE) for temperature mapping at the interface of an electrowelded assembly.The technical solution consists of a tubular piece in place of the real PE pipe, made of a non-weldable polymer with thermal parameters close to those of...

LARGE DIAMETER SPIRAL WOUND PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : Bülent Kuzkaya 2018 Las-Vegas

Spiral wound pipes are becoming more and more important in larger diameter HDPE pipe production technology. The spiral wound structured wall pipes with profiles are already well known and used for several low or non-pressure pipe applications. This paper shows that spiral wound pressure pipes can fulfill the...

Large pressure pipe system – Fully PE100

Author(s) : Sverre Tragethon, Martin Andersson 2018 Las-Vegas

Global mega trends push for investments in sewage treatment capacity & efficiency. A trend is to go for central regional treatment sites, typically remotely located from dense populated cities. This calls for high capacity pressure sewage transmission pipelines. Reliable operation is of course of paramount...

LITERATURE REVIEW: EFFECT OF ClO 2 ON AGEING OF POLYMER MATERIALS AND RELATED TEST METHODS

Author(s) : E.J.W. van der Stok, K. Jacobson, S.O. Jansma, D. Lukes 2018 Las-Vegas

The lack of a fast, universally-accepted test method for chlorine-dioxide-disinfected water is hindering the development of improved plastic piping materials. A literature survey was performed to define the degradation process in which chlorine dioxide affects the ageing of polypropylene, and to describe and reflect...

LONGITUDINAL CRACK IN LARGE PVC-U PRESSURE PIPES. PIPE GELATION INFLUENCE. CASE STUDY III

Author(s) : Joaquín Lahoz Castillo 2018 Las-Vegas

Irrigation networks in Spain extensively make use of plastic pressure pipes systems. Some recent failures focus the attention on Rapid Crack Propagation phenomena. Larger high-pressure PVC-u pipes are involved in most incidences detected. The level of gelation of those pipes were measured per EN-ISO 1452-2 test...

MODERN PE PIPE ENABLES THE TRANSPORT OF HYDROGEN

Author(s) : R.J.M. Hermkens, H. Colmer, H.A. Ophoff 2018 Las-Vegas

To investigate the suitability of PE pipes for the transport of hydrogen on a specific industrial site, three topics were investigated. These topics are: the chemical resistance of PE to hydrogen, the permeation rate of hydrogen through PE and the electrofusion of PE pipes exposed to hydrogen. It can be concluded that...

MOLECULARLY ORIENTED AWWA C909 PIPE FOR SEISMIC APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Richard St-Aubin, Dr. Thomas O’Rourke, Dr. Brad Wham, Blake Berger 2018 Las-Vegas

Molecularly oriented polyvinyl chloride (PVC-O) pipe has been found to withstand large ground deformation during seismic events without damage. The properties of PVC-O pipe that support this performance have been investigated in a multi-year testing program undertaken at the Geotechnical Lifelines Large Scale Testing...

MULTILAYER POLYMER PIPES - POSSIBLE UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED MATERIAL

Author(s) : Pavel Hutar, Jan Poduska, Pavol Dlhy, Andreas Frank, Jaroslav Kucera, Jiri Sadilek, Gerald Pinter, Lubos Nahlik 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper investigates possible use of recycled material as a part of a multilayer polyethylene pressure pipe system. Crack propagation in different configurations is simulated. Lifetimes of pipes containing recycled material are calculated. Results are compared with lifetimes of pipes made of virgin...

NEW CROSSLINKED (PEX) PIPES FROM SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES

Author(s) : Jacob John, Andrew J. Ortquist, Mats Thunwall, Patrik A. Roseen 2018 Las-Vegas

This study investigates production of crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) pipes using a resin obtained from a renewable resource via twin-screw extruder technology. PEX pipes were extruded using petroleum-based and renewable high-density polyethylene (HDPE) for comparison. Testing using relevant ASTM standards on the new...

NEW DISCOVERIES IN STABILIZING DRINKING WATER PIPES IN CONTACT WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE

Author(s) : J.D. Kim, S. Kim , T. Schmutz, C. Malchaire, D. Scholz, K. Keck 2018 Las-Vegas

Since a few years, pipe producers are facing the challenge to protect their plastic pipe from degradation due to chlorine dioxide. Unfortunately, most existing stabilization solutions are not effective enough to insure the desired lifetime of the material. This study shows how the latest development allow to top-up...

NEW EN STANDARD FOR INFILTRATION UNITS

Author(s) : Peter Verlaan 2018 Las-Vegas

Ten years ago, The European Plastic Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) has taken the initiative to prepare a draft 'Standard for Infiltration units' based on existing national specifications, at that time (in particular) available in France, Germany, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. This draft 'Standard for...

NEW HIGH MODULUS POLYPROPYLENE HELPS THE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE DIAMETER UTILITY TUNNEL

Author(s) : Dongyu Fang, Mark Yu, Zhang Qingfu 2018 Las-Vegas

In the present paper we introduced how high modulus polypropylene helps an innovative design of utility tunnel up to 4000mm in diameter. High modulus polypropylene shows high modulus but still maintain reasonable flexibility so that tunnel and surrounding soil could form an integrated system, which means no force is...

NEW PROCESS FOR THE HOT FORMING OF THE INTEGRATED SOCKET ON UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE PIPES MADE OF HIGH MODULUS POLYPROPYLENE WITH A COMPACT OR MULTILAYER WALL STRUCTURE

Author(s) : Giorgio Tabanelli 2018 Las-Vegas

In underground plastic drainage pipes the integrated socket joint technology is now used widely in PVC pipes with a compact or multilayer wall. On the other hand, in PP and HDPE pipes this form of connection, despite its well-known advantages, is still not widely used. The reason for this is basically due to the...

NEW TESTING METHOD FOR ELECTROFUSION WELDS

Author(s) : Dr. Love Pallon, Dr. Karin Jacobsson, Daniel Ejdeholm, Marie Allvar, Rikard Kärrbrant 2018 Las-Vegas

This work presents the development of the Full Length Tensile Test (FLTT), a method that enables an objective judgement of welding quality of electrofusion welds by measuring the energy to break (J/mm2 ). In this way a brittle, ductile and transitional mode failure can be differentiated without subjective visual...

NOVEL STABILIZERS FOR PVC/CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS

Author(s) : Mario Berna, Alessandro Tinarelli 2018 Las-Vegas

PVC pipes and fittings are currently manufactured using a wide range of stabilizer systems whilst CPVC is currently manufactured using Tin stabilizers. The aim of this paper is to present a new type of heat stabilizer (booster) to be used in combination with Tin stabilizer; surprisingly this product offers synergistic...

PANORAMIC VIEW OF A WATER MAIN REPLACEMENT PROJECT IN A FIRE-SEISMIC GEOHAZARD ZONE

Author(s) : K. Moita 2018 Las-Vegas

East Bay Municipal Utility District (District) provides water and wastewater services to the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The District’s potable water system serves approximately 1.4 million customers in a 332-square-mile area that spans portions of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties....

PE100 LARGE DIAMETER WATER TRANSMISSION PIPELINES TAKE OFF IN ASIA

Author(s) : Andrew Wedgner, Muhammad Qasim, Arsenio Sembrano 2018 Las-Vegas

Developments in material and pipe extrusion technology now enable converters to produce PE100 solid wall pipes of up to 2,800mm OD, but the use of such large diameters has been limited to industrial applications. This is now starting to change with water transmission pipelines of up to 1400mm OD being laid in the UAE...

PE100-RC IN LARGE DIAMETER SEA OUTFALL APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Mark Yu, Dongyu Fang, Peck Tze Kang, Amos Tay , Fan Liu 2018 Las-Vegas

Large diameter pipe was introduced in refineries and petrochemical plant, desalination plant and power plant for water intake and sea out fall in the past decade. PE100-RC material was selectedfor its excellent balance of superior bi-modal stress crack resistance and consistent high stiffness modulus. Under the...

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COUNTER-ROTATING CONTINUOUS MIXER AND CO-ROTATING TWIN SCREW EXTRUDER FOR HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : Sayaka Yamada, Kazuhide Sekiyama, Shiori Watanabe, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Hideo Funahashi 2018 Las-Vegas

Performance evaluation method of plastic mixers for high density polyethylene by using flow simulation is presented in this study. First, Mixing experiments were performed to find the mixing performance of mixers. Then, flow simulations using our original software in the mixers were carried out to know the important...

PERFORMANCE OF LARGE MARINE HDPE PIPES DURING THE SUBMERSION AS BASED ON LABORATORY TESTING

Author(s) : Ilija Radeljic, Ingemar Björklund 2018 Las-Vegas

Installations of solid wall HDPE pipes are becoming more difficult and riskier with the increase in diameter (OD2000+ mm), length of strings (1000+ meters) and reduction in the wall thickness (SDR26-30). To gain a better understanding of the limits of the final pipe assembly prior to the sinking, a laboratory tests in...

PIPELINE REPLACEMENT IN LAS VEGAS

Author(s) : Roger Jordan, Ryan Benner, Greg Kodweis 2018 Las-Vegas

The Las Vegas Valley Water District (District) delivers water to approximately 1.4 million residents within the City of Las Vegas and unincorporated Clark County. The District maintains more than 4500 miles of water pipeline ranging from 4-inches to 102- inches in diameter, as well as another 2,000 miles of...

POLYEHTHYLENE/ALUMINUM/POLYEHTHYLENE COMPOSITE PIPE FOR FUEL GAS APPLICATION

Author(s) : Baiqian Li, Jun Wang, Lixian Zheng, Xiaoyi Peng, Lei Wang, Yu Cui, Guozhi Xu 2018 Las-Vegas

Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PAP) composite pipe has the advantages of corrosion resistance, limited joints and convenient installation. Nowadays PAP pipes are widely used in indoor gas conveyance. But a number of companies encounter difficulties in installing gas meter in users’ house as well as billing....

POLYETHYLENE PIPELINE PERFORMANCE AGAINST EARTHQUAKE

Author(s) : Hideki Omuro, Tomokazu Himono 2018 Las-Vegas

In Japan, polyethylene (PE) pipe have been used for a long time, but its usage is limited for water service (low density PE / PE 50) and gas service (medium density PE / PE 80). However, after Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, it started to sell PE pipes for water distribution applications, because no damage on PE...

POLYOLEFIN PIPES IN THE MIDDLE EAST- TODAY AND TOMORROW

Author(s) : Robert Lawrence, Mohana Murali 2018 Las-Vegas

The paper covers the growth of the polyethylene pipe sector in the Middle East from the 90s to the present. The initial slow uptake was related to ignorance of the material properties from the end users through to designers and installers. Recently the Middle East has become a world leader in the use of ever larger...

PREPARATION AND STUDYING OF THERMOPLASTIC CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : Cheng Zhi, Mingyuan Hu, Kaige Duan, Chaoxi Zhou, Dongming Yu 2018 Las-Vegas

The PE properties are obviously improved by crosslinking modified to TPEX, which can approach to that of PEX, while still remaining thermoplastic. It can be processed by the common forming method of thermoplastic; the products can be hot-melted and the scrap can be processed to be reused. The two-layer structure...

PREPARATION AND STUDYING OF TWO-LAYER OXYGEN BARRIER PLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : Mingyuan Hu, Dongming Yu, Zhangcheng Chen, Cheng Zhi, Kaige Duan 2018 Las-Vegas

Studying in barrier property of TLCP/PO alloy and EVOH/PO alloy. Filtrating formulas with extruding alloy into pipes. Trying to coat alloy on pipes and co-extrude into two-layer oxygen barrier plastic pipe. The traditional Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) barrier plastic pipe used in internal closed-loop...

PRESERVING MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINATION WITH LEAK-FREE PE100 PIPES USED IN OFF-SHORE OIL WELLS

Author(s) : Farraj Tashman, Mohamed Ali Jaber, Sultan Al Kendi 2018 Las-Vegas

Analysis of subsea PE100 pipeline conveying oil produced water effluent with traces of hydrocarbons was done after 5 years of leak-tight continuous operation at boundary conditions showed that properties of PE100 pipes are intact when benchmarked with test results conducted on reference pipe sample kept for this...

PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT (PEF) METHOD COMPARED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCT DECLARATIONS (EPDS)

Author(s) : Ludo Debever, Peter Sejersen, Carolin Spirinckx 2018 Las-Vegas

Until today there are various ways of demonstrating the Environmental Performance of products, such as Life Cycle Assessments (LCA), Life Cycle Impact Assessments (LCIA), Environmental Performance Declarations (EPDs). The methods to obtain the result, however, can vary from country to country and can be interpreted...

Production of Potable Water Pipes for Chile Using the Inline Extrusion Process

Author(s) : Douglas D. Keller 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper describes the successful collaboration of a regulator, pipe producer and PE material supplier to demonstrate the conformance of pipes produced with inline extrusion compound to the requirement of the Chilean water pipe normative NCh398/1.Of2004 and also to the performance requirements of ISO 4427:2007 parts...

QUALITY ASSURANCE ON WELDED JOINTS WITH THE MECHANISED LINEAR SHEAR TEST (LST)

Author(s) : Juergen Wuest, Benjamin Baudrit, Frank Dorbath, Christopher Pommer 2018 Las-Vegas

A testing apparatus for determining the mechanical properties of electrofusion and heated tool sleeve welded joints with the mechanized linear shear test (LST) was developed. The LST-apparatus allows the recording of the force as a function of the extension / shear length. It has been proved that the linear shear test...

REHABILITATION OF ABANDONED DN1000MM STEEL PIPE WITH PE100 IN MALAYSIA

Author(s) : KianLin Ng, WengKeong Tan, KumHoong Lou 2018 Las-Vegas

Heavy and constant trucked container traffic combined with an accelerated ground settlement in a coastal reclaimed land caused a DN1000mm cement-lined mild steel water pipeline that crossed under it to sink by more than 6m from its original buried depth. This then caused the internal & external cement lining to...

SENSITIVITY OF STRAIN HARDENING MODULUS TO MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Senthil K. Kaliappan, Joel Fawaz, Umesh Gadgoli 2018 Las-Vegas

A series of non-commercial bimodal high density ethylene-α-olefin copolymers with systematically controlled molecular parameters over a wide range that would result in extremely low and high strain hardening modulus were prepared and tested Strain hardening modulus has been published as a standard test method (ISO...

SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF NON-VIRGIN POLYMERS

Author(s) : Andreas Frank, Isabelle J. Berger, Mario Messiha, Carl-Gustaf Ek, Norbert Schuler, Jens-Martin Storheil, Erwin Mayrbäurl, Steve Heeley, Frank Krause, Lodewijk Niemöller, Philippe Gabriëls, Yogesh S. Deshmukh, Florian Arbeiter, Thomas Koch, Gerald Pinter 2018 Las-Vegas

In order to improve the circular economy of polymers in terms of sustainability and reduced carbon footprint, the increased use of recyclates has become a topic of major importance. Due to their long design lifetimes, pipe applications represent an excellent opportunity to create added value to non-virgin polymers. In...

SQUEEZE-OFF AND REROUNDING OF PLASTIC PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : Juergen Wuest, Mirko Wenzel, Andreas Bilsing, Peter Postma, Werner Wessing 2018 Las-Vegas

Within the scope of a DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) research project the technology of squeezing-off for PE pipes at operating pressures higher than 1 bar and the extension to new materials with higher operating pressures were investigated. For this purpose the tightness of the...

STUDY ON PARAMETERS AFFECTING DURABILITY OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR HOT WATER APPLICATION

Author(s) : Hirofumi Kyutoku, Kazuhisa Igawa, Hidekazu Honma, Sakiko Fukunishi, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2018 Las-Vegas

There are mainly two grades of polyethylene pipes for hot water supply and heating. The excellent molecular structure polyethylene resins having resistance to stress crack growth are used because hot water is flowed for a long time in both polyethylene pipes. Furthermore, various additives are mixed to prevent the...

STUDY ON THE RESISTANCE TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE TEST METHODS OF PLASTIC INSPECTION CHAMBERS

Author(s) : Zhang Wei, Wei Ruoqi, Zhou Minghong, Zhou Mingwei, 2018 Las-Vegas

This article gives a brief introduction of plastic inspection chambers in China. It focuses on the formulation of China's national standard for plastic inspection chambers and conducts the theoretical analysis and data validation of the key technical metrics in the standard for the following three tests: the...

SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATING RECYCLED HDPE INTO CORRUGATED PIPING

Author(s) : D.W. Currence, B. Sauer 2018 Las-Vegas

Society’s call for improved stewardship of natural resources and public funds continues to grow. Combined with the challenges facing public infrastructure has resulted in the broadened expectation for sustainable and resilient materials and products to serve in these future public infrastructure needs....

TAKING POLYETHYLENE (PE) PIPE TO NEW HEIGHTS....AND NEW DIAMETERS!

Author(s) : Norbert Jansen, Albert Lueghamer 2018 Las-Vegas

Demand for polyethylene (PE) pipe continues to grow on a global basis. The performance properties of this tough, durable piping material are widely recognized by the engineering and design community on a worldwide scale and the range of applications expands. The evolutionary trend in PE piping systems has been very...

TESTING PARAMETERS INFLUENCING THE STRAIN HARDENING MODULUS

Author(s) : E.J.W. van der Stok 2018 Las-Vegas

The effect of eleven different test parameters on the strain hardening modulus was investigated using the Design of Experiments statistical method. The changes in strain hardening modulus due to temperature, tensile drawing speed and the cooling rate after annealing were assessed. The importance of taking account of...

The Evolution of Elastomeric Joints in Plastic Pipe Systems and the use of Long Term Stress Relaxation Testing to Predict Service Life

Author(s) : Julian West 2018 Las-Vegas

Until the late 1950’s, water and sewerage pipe lines used predominantly rigid joints. These were often made from tarred rope and cement mortar. The introduction of ‘flexible’ elastomeric joints allowed angular deflection, transverse shear load and localized pipe deformation without leakage or failure of the...

THE INFLUENCE OF MOLECULAR DESIGN VARIABLES OF BIMODAL HDPE ON THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE MEASURED BY ACCELERATED METHODS

Author(s) : Cliff Mure, Siddharth Athreya, Dane Chang, Rujul Mehta 2018 Las-Vegas

New generations of PE100 and PE4710 pressure pipe materials exhibit a superior balance of mechanical properties. The slow crack growth performance of these materials measured by traditional tests such as PENT and FNCT can exceed one year. Accelerated test methods, including strain hardening modulus, accelerated FNCT,...

THE TEST METHOD OF METALLIC ELEMENT FOR POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPES OR MATERIALS FOR PIPES AND ITS APPLICATION

Author(s) : Xiaoying Lu, Yujie Wang, Qiang Huang, Chunyan Xu, Guangyu Zhu, Aimin Xiang, Linmei Wu, Yanfang Wang 2018 Las-Vegas

The determination method of metal elements for polyethylene pipes was reported in this paper, the difference in metal elements content between raw materials and recycled materials was analyzed. The results showed that raw and recycled materials in polyethylene pipes were effectively distinguished via metal element...

THE USE OF TEMPERATURE, LUBRICATION, AND SUPPLIED HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IN THE PRODUCTION OF ORIENTED PVC PIPE

Author(s) : Jie Feng, Michael Petr, Jeff Wenzel, Mark Mirgon, Sam Crabtree, Alan Nakatani 2018 Las-Vegas

Through tensile tests, simulated orientation, tribology, and finite element analysis, this study explored the effect of temperature, lubrication and applied hydraulic pressure in the PVC orientation process. It was demonstrated that tight control of these parameters is critical in a continuous PVC orientation process...

THE WORLD'S FIRST CLASS 3 SAFETY RELATED NUCLEAR PE4710 PIPING PROJECT – 10 YEAR REVIEW

Author(s) : Lonnie Corley, Dane Chang, Harvey Svetlik, Matt Brandes, Thomas Musto, Frank Schaaf, David Fink 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper presents a brief overview of a challenging project at the Callaway Nuclear Power Plant where HDPE was utilized to replace degraded steel buried piping in a Safety Related water system. Callaway was the first Nuclear Power plant to obtain NRC approval and successfully place the HDPE piping system into...

TRENCHLESS ADVANCEMENTS IN HDD WITH FUSED PVC

Author(s) : T. R. Marti 2018 Las-Vegas

Horizontal Directional Drilling, or HDD, is now a common technique for installation of PVC pipe. This was not always the case. The fused PVC use in HDD has grown from an initial installation of 500’ (150M) in 2004 to installation lengths over 7000’ (2.14 KM) today. Advancements in connection properties taking into...

UNIMODAL MDPE (PE 2708/PE 80) PIPE MATERIALS SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE ABRASION RESISTANCE IN SLURRY FLOW APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Ashish M. Sukhadia, Wes Long 2018 Las-Vegas

Polyethylene (PE) pipe is a frequent choice for transporting slurry solutions. It has proven to have superior wear resistance than other pipe materials. For example, when carrying fine grain slurries, polyethylene pipe has been shown in laboratory tests to be three to five times more wear resistant than steel pipes....

UPDATE ON PVC STABILIZATION AND LUBRICATION FOR PIPES- GLOBAL TRENDS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON RECIPE DESIGN

Author(s) : Dane Tallen 2018 Las-Vegas

Update on paper given at last Plastics Pipes conference. An update on market trends in PVC stabilizer design, global PVC pipe market development and implications for lubrication package design. PVC is a well-established material used worldwide for different applications such as window profiles, technical profiles,...

USE OF RISK BASED “FIT FOR PURPOSE” DESIGN FOR SAFE AND STRUCTURALLY RELIABLE PE PRESSURE PIPE LINES

Author(s) : Predrag Micic 2018 Las-Vegas

The Polyethylene (PE) pipeline business is constantly experiencing change. In the not too distant past, lower performance materials and a lack of understanding of major risks to pipeline structural and operation integrity meant that we needed standards that ensured a good quality pipe, careful installation and a...

VARIABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR PRODUCTION OF CORRUGATED HDPE PIPE MANUFACTURED WITH RECYCLED CONTENT

Author(s) : Crista K. McNish, Joe Babcanec, Rachel M. Thurston, Zacharias Obermeyer 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper presents findings from extensive testing performed on various recycled HDPE resins at different stages of processing to evaluate: (1) the variability expected from a source resin (e.g. post-consumer materials from bulk recycling, post-industrial waste stream), (2) variability when blending different types...

VARIOUS APPROACHES TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE PIPING CONSTRUCTION QUALITY IN OSAKA GAS (2018)

Author(s) : Katsutaka Nakagami, Takahiro Kasatani 2018 Las-Vegas

Osaka Gas improves various approaches to the improvement of polyethylene piping construction quality and executes the approaches. As a result of that, polyethylene pipes in Osaka Gas maintain high-quality and withstand the earthquakes. This paper shows these methods and performance against earthquakes in Japan. In...

WITH PE-RT (POLYETHYLENE OF RAISED TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE) NEW APPLICATIONS IN DEMANDING OIL&GAS APPLICATIONS CAN BE REALIZED

Author(s) : Alex Stolarz 2018 Las-Vegas

THE PE-RT TECHNOLOGY HAS EVOLVED SINCE IT HAS BEEN FIRST INVENTED AND INTRODUCED TO THE MARKET IN 1982. AN ESTABLISHED TECHNOLOGY FOR HOT AND COLD WATER PIPES USED IN DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS HAS POSITIONED ITSELF WELL WITHIN OTHER MATERIALS DUE TO THE COST EFFICIENT PROCESSING, HANDLING AND PRODUCTION OF PIPES. RECENT...



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