PPCA conference : 1985 York

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.
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ABS Pipework for High-Tech Applications

Author(s) : Peach 1985 York

ABS h a s been used f o r p r e s s u r e pipework systems f o r o v e r 30 y e a r s a n d although it i s not one of t h e major tonnage polymers for t h i s application, it h a s become a popular engineering material, particularly in p r o c e s s a r e a s , where h i g h p u r i t y i s r e q u i r e d . T h e...

An Argon Plasma Etching Method for the Investigation of Craze Microstructure in PVC Gas Pipes

Author(s) : Zefrin, Scholten 1985 York

The gas industry in the Netherlands uses not only PE and metal but also unplasticized and impact modified PVC as pipe material for the distribution of natural gas.For a number of years the phenomenon of crazing in PVC and impact modified Pvc gas pipes caused by the combined action of mechanical stresses and certain...

Analysis of Field Failures Caused by Slow Crack Growth

Author(s) : Lustiger 1985 York

Since 1980, samples of field failures in polyethylene pipe for gas distribution have been collected and analyzed at Battelle in a field failure library. The majority of these failures were found to occur from slow crack growth as a result of a secondary load. Most often, the location of these failures were at points...

Behaviour of GRP Pipes under a Variety of Load Conditions

Author(s) : Rahmann, Banks, Tooth 1985 York

The equations governing the behaviour of circular cylindrical GRP pipes under a variety of loading conditions are derived. The pipes are assumed to be fabricated as a layered anisotropic system with through thickness symmetry. The well known Fourier expansion methods, used extensively in the analysis of isotropic...

Calculation of Pipes under Multiaxial Mechanical Strain

Author(s) : Menges, Schmachtenberg 1985 York

The mechanical properties of thermoplastics are determined by strong. non-linear structures which are primarily functions of time,-t'emperature and degree of multiaxial loading. With the help of simple approximation-functions an exact description of this non-linear relationship between stress and strain is...

Characteristics of a Good Joint with Electrofusion Fittings

Author(s) : Usclat 1985 York

E l e c t r o f u s i o n i s uncontestahly a r e l i a b l e assembly t e c h n i q u e w i t h much h i g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e s t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s h u r t o r s o c k e t f u s i o n . T h e s t u d v of t h e p a r a m e t e r s i n v o l v e d i n e l e c t...

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe - A Proven Fomer in the Management of Inorganic Chemicals

Author(s) : Filer 1985 York

CPVC piping systems have found wide use in many market segments due to its ability to meet a wide range of temperatures and pressure needs as well as excellent chemical resistance.

Design of Bolted Flange Joints in GRP Pipes

Author(s) : Godwin, Kilty, Matthews 1985 York

A programme of tests has been carried out to study the behaviour of bolted GRP pipe flanges under pressure. The influence of bolt tension has been established, and the information acquired in this way has been used to validate a Finite Element model of the flange. This model may be used to predict leakage...

Electrofusion Welding Prediction and Computer-Aided Design of Fittings

Author(s) : Pitman 1985 York

A relatively recent innovation in the field of plastic pipes and pipeline systems is the development of electro-fusion as a means of joining pipes and fittings. For this technique special fittings are manufactured which incorporate a heating element close to the surface to be welded. Welding takes place by locating...

Evaluation of Plastics Tubing for Domestic Wet Central Heating

Author(s) : Britton, Houseman 1985 York

British Gas has an interest in alternative pipework materials for wet central heating systems, and has been studying candidates, including a number of plastics, for more than 10 years. Performance requirements are outlined. A significant aspect is that of compatibility with other components of the system, and a novel...

Evaluation of the Notched Ring Test as a Means of Predicting the Long Term Performance

Author(s) : Harnett, Wilson 1985 York

Notched r i n g s e c t i o n s o f e x t r u d e d p i p e and i n j e c t i o n moulded f i t t i n g s h a v e b e e n t e s t e d t o i n d u c e b r i t t l e f a i l u r e w h i c h c a n b e d e s c r i b e d by LEFM t h e o r y . F a i l u r e t i m e s have been measured a t a r a n g e of a p p l i e d s...

Experience from 12 Years Evaluation of Cross Linked Polyethylene

Author(s) : Ifwarsson, Eriksson 1985 York

H o t w a t e r p i p e s made o f c r o s s l i n k e d p o l y e t h y l e n e h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a t S t u d s v i k E n e r g i t e k n i k A 6 since 1973. T h e w o r k h a s m a i n l y b e e n concent r a t e d t o s t u d y i n g d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n a n d e x t r a p o l a t i o n...

Filament Wound Pipes - Machining and Finishing

Author(s) : 1985 York

During t a l k s w i t h p e r s o n n e l from Redlands Reinforced P i a s t i c s Ltd. ( p a r t of t h e Redland Group of Companies), t h e p r o c e s s of machining p l a s t i c r e i n f o r c e d p i p e end-forms was d i s c u s s e d w i t h a view t o T r a d i t i o n a l l y Redlands manufacture 65% t o...

Fracture Arrest Conditions in Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pipes

Author(s) : Greig 1985 York

As polyethylene pipes increase in size above 250 mm, the avoidance of high-speed brittle fracture propagation becomes of overriding importance. More stringent operating and test pressures have had to be introduced. A full scale test programme on a variety of pipe sizes is being conducted by British Gas. In this...

In-Service Durability of uPVC Water Mains

Author(s) : Lancashire 1985 York

In order to determine whether uPVC pressure pipe performance is affected by time in service, sections of uPVC water mains of ages up to 16 years have been exhumed and tested. From a combination of quality and mechanical property tests it...

Is it possible to explain the occurance of Brittle Fracture in Polyethylene with

Author(s) : Eriksson, Ifwarson 1985 York

S i n c e 1978 S T U D S V I K h a s been t e s t i n g a PEMoD-grade f r o m U n i f o s Kemi A B f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s in t h e t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e 30 - 60 C . T h e aim h a s been t o s t u d y t h e l o n g t e r m p r o p e r t i e s of t h e m a t e r i a l a n d t h u s t o enable i t s l...

Jointing Methods for PE Casing Pipes of District Heating Systems

Author(s) : Alferink, Blom, Venema, Wolters 1985 York

Joints in PE casings of district heating pipelines are made by extrusion welding, butt welding or sleeves in which sealing is obtained by an adhesive. To set up guidelines for making these joints a lot of research has been performed, part of which is described in this paper. Joints of a good quality are obtained if...

Modern Extrusion of Pipes and Profiles - Computer Controls on Extrusion Lines

Author(s) : Fischer, Worthberg 1985 York

Modern extrusion will in future mean computer control. Even the mere introduction of a microcomputer-based wall thickness measuring apparatus helps to save 1-2 % of material in pipe manufacture. Automatic centering of the die, in conjunction with wall thickness measurement and with gravimetric feed of the...

Optimizing the Resistance of Polyethylene to Slow Crack Growth

Author(s) : Lustiger, Markham 1985 York

I n developing optimum p o l y e t h y l e n e r e s i n s f o r gas d i s t r i b u t i o n p i p i n g , i t i s important t o maximize r e s i s t a n c e t o slow crack growth (SCG) which i s t h e most common mode of m a t e r i a l - r e l a t e d f i e l d f a i l u r e i n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . I...

PE Jointing Techniques

Author(s) : Maine, Stafford 1985 York

S i n c e 1969, when p o l y e t h y l e n e p i p e s y s t e m s were f i r s t used t o t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of j o i n t s h a v e d i s t r i b u t e gas i n the U.K., been c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g h e a t e d t o o l f u s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . The j o i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s...

Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Values of Ductile Plastics Pipe Materials

Author(s) : van Dijk 1985 York

A method has been developed to obtain plane-strain fractures in ductile plastics materials. This was done by adhesion of stiff and hard layers to the free surfaces of 3-points bending samples. The plane-strain fracture toughness, K,., was derived from the force-displacement curves in two wad§ : via a finite...

Polybutylene Pipes - Their Performance and World-Wide Applications

Author(s) : Ball 1985 York

Polybutylene's basic physical properties are briefly reviewed with reference to its unique balance within the range of polymers used in the production of plastic pipes. Pipe standards are discussed and examples given of pipe characteristics required to meet the recently introduced German DIN norm. Polybutylene's...

PVDF Pipe Systems for Supply of Chlorinated Chemicals

Author(s) : Parker, Wydle) 1985 York

A small nunber of p r e m t u r e f a i l u r e s have occurred i n PVDF pipe s y s t e m carrying c h l o r i m t e d m c a l s . A proposed explanation of such f a i l u r e s is that the observed deterioration i n the physical properties of m F is a r e s u l t of at-& by a t a n i c chlorine produced under...

Rapid Crack Propagation in PE Pipes Studied by Modified Robertson Tests

Author(s) : Wolters 1985 York

The modified Robertson test is a test method by which ina rather simple and quick way crack arrest and (limited) crack propagation are distinguished, provided that crack speed over the crack length is measured. Rather large variations in rapid crack propagation (RCP) behaviour of different PE types have been found....

Relevance and Application of Fracture Toughness Measurements for UPVC

Author(s) : Moore, Prediger, Stephenson 1985 York

Fracture mechanics techniques are applied to UPVC pipe compositions in order to obtain quantitative and credible toughness results. The influence of polymer molecular weight and pipe age-in-service is then examined.The techniques are also applied to considerations of material toughness and pipe toughness.Plastics...

Severn-Trent Water Authoritys Experience on Laying Medium Density PE Pipe

Author(s) : Thompson 1985 York

Over the past three years the Authority has been examining materials used for the laying of mains and services. With the introduction of MDPE to the Water Industry this has given the opportunity to examine this new material and compare i t with the more traditional pipelaying materials. In order to carry out this...

Sewer Renovation - Site Experiences and Future Developments

Author(s) : Rice 1985 York

A market awaits the Plastics Industry with the renovation of deteriorating sewers. Plastic pipes feature strongly in small diameter renovation techniques. To successfully exploit this market it will be necessary for civil engineers to understand more about polymers...

Specifying High Toughness in PE Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Marshall, Birch 1985 York

It is proposed that present Specifications for PE Pressure pipes are essentially undemanding and tests do not simulate service conditions. Perfect pipes are assessed rather than pipes which have sustained handling and installation ‘damage’.Flaws and defects have caused many problems with other thermoplastics pipes...

Static Calculation of Load of Buried HDPE Pipes with Profiled Wall and Smooth Pipe Inside

Author(s) : Koch, Meldt 1985 York

T r i a l s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e f o r m a t i o n and b u c k l i n g b e h a v i o u r o f HDPE p i p e s w i t h p r o f i l e d o u t e r w a l l a n d s m o o t h b o r e a r e reported. R e s u l t s show t h a t t h e d e f o r m a t i o n a n d s t a b i l i t y c h e c k c a n b e c a r r i...

The Abrasion Resistance of Polymers in Slurry Environments

Author(s) : Lowe, Marshall 1985 York

A new test has been developed to evaluate the abrasion performance of different pipe materials. The Rotating Pipe Test simulates sliding bed flow of a slurry and gives quite excellent data reproducibility. The influence of sample geometry and slurry changing frequency and particle size have been assessed. The...

The Design and Performance of Thermoplastic Valves

Author(s) : Dibbo 1985 York

T h e r m o p l a s t i c v a l v e d e s i g n and moulding t e c h n o l o g y is a dynamic s i t u a t i o n r e s p o n d i n g t o m a r k e t demands w i t h new and improved p r o d u c t s . The w i d e r a n g e o f v a l v e s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t h e r m o p l...

The Development of a Novel Electrofusion System

Author(s) : Answell 1985 York

The electrofusion technique far polyolefins, and in particular, polyethylene pipe and system assembly has many advantages aver heated tool fusion or mechanical jointing methods of assembly, not least of which is weld campat- ibility with different...

The Dynamic Fatigue Behaviour of UPVC Pressure Pipe

Author(s) : Dukes 1985 York

The dynamic f a t i g u e performance o f a new h i g h s t r e n g t h , o r i e n t e d , uPVC (HSPVC) p r e s s u r e p i p e is compared t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a s - e x t r u d e d uPVC product under s i m i l a r t e s t conditions. R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by c y c l i n g t h e h y d r a u...

The Failure of Butt Fusion Joints in Polyethylene Pipe Systems

Author(s) : Parmar, Bowman 1985 York

The performance of aligned and controlled misaligned butt welds in 63 and 90mm polyethylene pipe systems was determined under fatigue loading conditions designed to induce brittle failure. The results showed a significant reduction in fatigue lifetime for butt welds having fractional misalignments greater than 10% of...

The Growing Interest in High Pressure

Author(s) : Hooning 1985 York

The main characteristics of filament wound GRE (= glass reinforced epoxy) piping are discussed and some comparisons with other materials are made. It is conclud~d this system's excellent mechanical properties combined with its outstanding chemical resistance make it very suitable for all conditions where materials...

The Production and Properties of the Die-Drawn PE Pipe

Author(s) : Selwood, Parson, Gray 1985 York

The process of die-drawing has been investigated as a means of producing oriented polyethylene pipe. Two materials, one homopolymer and one copolymer, have been successfully drawn into pipe. When compared with isotropic pipes the oriented products exhibit enhanced mechanical and physical properties and produce a...

The Relationship of the Initial Velocity of the Deformation Zone to the Slow Crack Growth Rate in Linear Polyethylene

Author(s) : Brown 1985 York

Slow crack growth in polyethylene involves one of the most complex fracture processes in the field of fracture mechanics and especially; very little is known about the initiation mechanism. It is generally believed that there is a critical value of the stress intensity, K, below which crack growth does not occur in...

The review of the Pipe Work sponsored by the Polymer Engineering Directorate (PED)

Author(s) : Rice 1985 York

The Polymer Engineering Directorate of SERC has piayed a major part in sponsoring research and development of plastics pressure pipe systems over the past eight years. Since its inception PED has been involved with both thermoplastic and GRP pipe programmes and to date has invested approx. £2 million of Government...

Unique Usage of High Density Polyethylene Piping Systems

Author(s) : Sanders 1985 York

A surge in industrial development in Richards Bay over the past three years prompted the Government to establish the Nllatuze Water Board with powers to control water supply and effluent disposal over a 20 !a wide coastal strip stretching 50 km from Mtunzini in the south to Kwambonambi in the north. The...

Wall Thickness Control and In Line Inspection of Pipes

Author(s) : Cooke 1985 York

There is now considerable pressure on pipe producers to improve efficiency and to automate to meet the ecconomic pressures that have increased over the past eighteen months. It essential that to meet the twin demands of holding manufacturing...

Weathering of UPCV Pipes

Author(s) : LeHunt 1985 York

The behaviour of UPVC pipes exposed to natural weathering for periods up to 51 months has been evaluated in terms of colour change, surface behaviour and low speed mechanical properties and the influence of CaCO,/Tj;0, substitution and gelation variations has been investigated within the programme. As part of a...

Pipe Extrusion with Rotating Die Systems

Author(s) : Bush, Harland, Bilgin 1985 York

Plastic Valves in Polyethylene Natural Gas Distribution Networks

Author(s) : Transue 1985 York

Polyvinylidene Fluoride for Resistant and Long Life Pipes

Author(s) : Dilley 1985 York

The Investigation into the Use of Fatigue in Accelerated Quality Control Procedure for 50 Years Life Prediction

Author(s) : Lawrence 1985 York

Trends in Plastics Pipe Usage

Author(s) : Murphy 1985 York

Use and Specification of GRP Pipes in Abu Dhabi Area

Author(s) : Mc Dowell 1985 York

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BOREALISBOROUGEINEOS O&PIRPCLyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE