PPCA conference : 2016 Berlin

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.
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21 YEARS OF PIPELINE TRAINING – THE LESSONS LEARNT

Author(s) : Robert LeHunt 2016 Berlin

Nationally moderated and approved competency training Units and Qualifications have been established in Australia for plastics pipes within an overall Plastics Industry Training Package. Delivery of such Units over a 21 year period has contributed to a greater understanding of various plastics pipes materials,...

A COMBINATION OF ACCELERATED TEST METHODS TO EVALUATE NEW GENERATION RESINS FOR DISINFECTANT- RESISTANT POLYETHYLENE PIPES

Author(s) : Francis Reny Costa, Anh Tuan Tran, Jeroen Oderkerk, Thomas Hjertberg, Christophe Salles, Ulf W. Gedde, Benjamin Rabaud, Flavia Zraick 2016 Berlin

The premature failure of polyethylene pipes in contact with high chlorine and chlorine dioxide, used as residual disinfectants in drinking water distribution, remains an area of concern for water companies particularly in regions where temperatures are regularly or seasonally high. Multiple factors can amplify the...

A New High Temperature Pressure Rated HDPE Pipe Resin Expands the Capability of Polyethylene Pipe

Author(s) : Dane Chang, Carl Baker 2016 Berlin

Due to its flexibility, toughness, and good resistance to corrosion and abrasion, polyethylene pressure pipe has been widely used for several decades in a variety of applications, including gas and water distribution, oil and gas gathering, and many industrial pipe segments. A significant limitation for polyethylene...

A NOVEL CYCLONE SINGLE STACK SYSTEM FOR BUILDING DRAINAGE

Author(s) : Chen Jianchun, Liu Luliang 2016 Berlin

3S (Strengthen Single System) cyclone single stack system is a new product for building drainage, which has the advantages of saving materials, large drainage quantity, low drainage noise, etc. In this system, the guide structure, swirl angle, volume structureand the height of spiral reinforcement are optimized...

A NOVEL PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CRB SPECIMENS VIA AN OPTICAL TECHNIQUE

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Paul J. Freudenthaler, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang 2016 Berlin

Cyclic tests with cracked round bar (CRB) specimens have been used for some time to characterize the slow crack growth behavior of polyolefin pipe grade materials. In fact, most recently a standardized test procedure for cyclic CRB testing has been released in ISO 18489. To obtain kinetic data for cyclic crack growth...

A PROPOSED PROCEDURE FOR PVC PIPE TEMPERATURE DE-RATING IN NORTH AMERICA

Author(s) : Steven Folkman, Ron Bishop 2016 Berlin

There are guidelines in AWWA standards for de-rating a PVC pipe’s pressure class if the operating temperature exceeds 23°C. These de-rating factors are appropriate for a system operated at a constant elevated temperature. In the warm desert climates in the USA it is common for the water mains to exceed room...

A SIMPLE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR PVC PIPE TO ACCOUNT FOR CYCLIC PRESSURE LOADING

Author(s) : Steven Folkman, Ron Bishop 2016 Berlin

One of conditions design engineers face is selecting an appropriate pipe wall thickness (or DR) that will accommodate both maximum operating pressure and repeated surge pressure events. Methods for assessing the number of cycles to failure is quite well developed for PVC pipe. Fracture mechanics approaches can be very...

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF PE ELECTROFUSION JOINTS

Author(s) : Peter Postma 2016 Berlin

On request of the Dutch DSO’s and in cooperation with all important Dutch stakeholders (producers, suppliers, contractors and the regulator), Kiwa Technology investigated the relevancy of defects found with Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) and if it was possible to determine acceptance criteria. The project...

ADVANCED APPLICATIONS FOR HDPE PIPES WITH NEW PE-RT MATERIAL

Author(s) : Wes Long, Carl F. Baker 2016 Berlin

Canfor’s Prince George Pulp & Paper Mill in Prince George, BC, Canada operates a bleach plant effluent system for the production of Bleached Kraft Pulp. The original underground fiberglass reinforced pipe (FRP) presents an elevated risk to both environment and production targets. Over the past five years there...

ADVANCED CHEMISTRY IN PE POLYMERISATION ALLOW NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR PE-RT TYPE I RESIN

Author(s) : Alex Stolarz, Jian Wang 2016 Berlin

THE PE-RT TECHNOLOGY HAS EVOLVED SINCE IT HAS FIRST BEEN INVENTED 1982. AN ESTABLISHED TECHNOLOGY FOR HOT AND COLD SANITARY PIPES HAS POSITIONED ITSELF WELL WITHIN OTHER MATERIALS DUE TO THE EASY PROCESSING, HANDLING AND COST EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF PIPES. RECENT TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS EVEN MORE FLEXIBLE RESINS TO BE...

Advancing of Plastic Corrugated Pipe Systems in India in Last Two Decades

Author(s) : C.B. Dandekar 2016 Berlin

Plastic Corrugated Piping System (PCPS) was introduced in India in 2001, much later than the western world started using it for various applications. It received a mixed response from the Govt. Agencies, but was well accepted by the market, actual users and standardizing institutions. PCPS finds applications in...

ASSESSMENT OF FUSION DEGREE OF UNPLASTICIZED POLY (VINYLCHLORIDE)(PVC-U) PRODUCTS USING TORQUE RHEOMETER

Author(s) : Fu Zhimin, He Guoshan, Wang Wanjuan 2016 Berlin

Our research shows that in a torque rheometer test the greater the fusion degree of PVC-U is, the higher the minimum torque of the torque curve is, and the smaller the difference between the maximum torque and the minimum torque of the torque curve. According to the relationship, the method of evaluating the fusion...

ASSET MANAGEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE GAS NETWORKS

Author(s) : Ian Aldridge, Declan Robinson, Dave Smart, Chris Reed, Martyn, Greig, Trevor Stafford, David Christie-Lowe, Alec Erskine 2016 Berlin

For the UK polyethylene (PE) gas pipe network, the first installations now exceed 40 years in the ground, with an original design life of 50 years. It was thus timely to review the current condition and performance history of these first generation PE materials. A major 4 year project was started in 2010 to examine...

ASSURED QUALITY OF BUTT FUSION AND ELECTROFUSION WELDING OF PE100 PIPE

Author(s) : David Chrystie-Lowe 2016 Berlin

The many benefits of PE100 pipe materials include flexibility and toughness in addition to being relatively light products that are not subject to corrosion and expected to last well beyond the design lifetime [1]. It is also a distinct advantage that end-load resistant joints can be made using butt fusion (BF) and...

BENEFITS OF MULTILAYER PIPE SYSTEMS WITH AN EVALTM EVOH BARRIER LAYER

Author(s) : Mieke Vanhoof, Cynthia Teniers 2016 Berlin

Since many years EVOH (ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer) is applied in plastic heating systems [cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), polyethylene of raised temperature resistance (PE-RT), polypropylene (PP), polybutylene (PB)], where its excellent gas barrier properties ensure a minimization of corrosion of the metal...

BI-ORIENTED PVC EXTRUSION: STRETCHING PIPE PERFORMANCE

Author(s) : André Nijland 2016 Berlin

Bi-oriented PVC (PVC-O) pipes are increasingly installed on a worldwide basis for drinking water applications. This is due to the outstanding mechanical properties of PVC-O pipes, such as high strength and high ductility. Furthermore bi-oriented PVC pipes are light weight, flexible and have a low carbon footprint and...

BIG DATA, BIG DIFFERENCE

Author(s) : Nick Mark, Eric Bridgstock, David Carey 2016 Berlin

An insight into a unique approach to the management of electrofusion and butt fusion joint quality on polyethylene pipelines. The presentation will reference experience and learnings from a system that has already been used in the field to great effect (see Abstract) and a new approach to butt fusion (see enclosed...

CAN PE AND PVC GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPES WITHSTAND THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE GASES?

Author(s) : René Hermkens, Ernst van der Stok, Johannes de Bruin, Jeroen Weller 2016 Berlin

The replacement of fossil fuels like natural gas by sustainable gases such as biogas and hydrogen can mitigate global warming. There has been some debate about the impact of sustainable gases on the materials used in the gas grid. An extensive study of the behaviour of PE, PVC, POM and rubber materials was therefore...

CHAIRMAN’S REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR U.S. PIPE STANDARD AWWA/ANSI C906-15

Author(s) : John Fishburne 2016 Berlin

The United States water industry relies heavily on American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standards publications for product ratings, design parameters, and guidance on installation methodologies. In September 2015, AWWA published Standard C906-15 covering 4” – 65” polyethylene pressure pipe for waterworks...

CHALLENGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET FOR LARGE DIAMETER PE PIPES FOR MARINE INSTALLATIONS

Author(s) : Ingemar Bjorklund, Trygve Blomster, Ilija Radeljic 2016 Berlin

The S-bend installation method is the reason for the successful worldwide development of the market for marine PE pipelines over the last 50 years. Small and medium sized PE pipes can safely be installed using the S-bend installation method; however, difficulties increase as pipe sizes increase. In order to ensure a...

Close-fit Pipe Lining Without the Machines

Author(s) : Derek Muckle 2016 Berlin

It has long been the case that plastic pipes have been subject of folding operations in a factory and then supplied to site for use in pipeline renovation applications. The same cannot be said for pipes subject to diameter reduction as they have, as a principle, relied on being diameter reduced at site in a forming...

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of a PVC-U rain gutter system versus a system made from galvanized steel

Author(s) : Carolin Spirinckx, Peter Sejersen, Zoran Davidovski, Karolien Peeters 2016 Berlin

For the European Plastic Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) it is important to have an insight into the environmental aspects during the life-span of plastic pipe systems all the way from the cradle to the grave. The result of the studies allows TEPPFA and its member companies to distinct (for the pipe systems...

COMPARISON BETWEEN STRESS RUPTURE TEST AND HOT WATER CIRCULATION TEST CONSIDERING ACTUAL OPERATING CONDITION OF PE PIPES FOR HOT WATER APPLICATION

Author(s) : Takehiro Fujii, Kazuhisa Igawa, Hidekazu Honma, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2016 Berlin

The hydrostatic stress rupture test has been conventionally conducted as a good method of the lifetime evaluation. The hot water circulation test which is reflected to the actual operating condition is also useful method. The correlations and differences between the two tests were examined. Compared with the...

COMPARISON OF IN-LINE COMPOUNDING VS. PRE-COMPOUNDED RESIN ON POLYETHYLENE PIPE PERFORMANCE

Author(s) : Vivek Rohatgi, Pamela L. Maeger, Ashish M. Sukhadia 2016 Berlin

This study is related to two common approaches used for pipe fabrication, viz. in-line compounding and extrusion of a pre-compound. Pipes were extruded using both approaches and properties were evaluated per the relevant ASTM and ISO standards for water and gas pressure pipe applications to compare the performance of...

CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE PIPE USED IN MINING APPLICATIONS, THEIR COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFICATIONS AND ANTICIPATED DESIGN LIFE

Author(s) : Jim Goddard, Mario Paredes 2016 Berlin

Samples of polyethylene pipe supplied to mining projects throughout the Americas were selected and tested for compliance with existing ASTM specifications. Estimated service life of these pipe products in mining applications are made based on the laboratory tests required in the ASTM specifications. Anticipated...

DESIGN OF PLASTIC SEWAGE PRODUCTS IN PVC

Author(s) : Maarten Kruijer 2016 Berlin

To ensure the structural integrity of long term load bearing thermoplastic (like PVC or HDPE/PP) components, the time-dependent behavior of the raw (thermoplastic) material needs to been assessed and integrated in the design procedure. This paper describes how the time-dependent material behavior can be integrated in...

DETERMINING THE RESIDUAL QUALITY OF PE PIPES USING THE STRAIN HARDENING TEST

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok, Frans Scholten 2016 Berlin

Samples machined directly from pipe show that orientation has a large influence on the strain hardening modulus. No effects arising as a result of residual stresses were found. Samples machined in the axial direction from a hydrostatic pressurised pipe showed no effect as a result of this mechanical degradation. For...

Development and applications of a novel polymer of polyvinyl chloride having a hydrophilic property

Author(s) : Kohei Moritaka, Yoshihiro Kubo, Shuhei Kanmuri 2016 Berlin

We have developed poly (VC-co-PEGMA). This polymer is obtained from the polymerization with the vinyl chloride monomer and PEGMA (polyoxy ethylene glycol monomethacrylate). Each component of this polymer is chemically-bonded. This polymer shows hydrophilic property, antistatic properties, transparency etc., and, is...

DEVELOPMENT OF FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDED JOINTS IN PE PIPES

Author(s) : Mike Troughton, Amir Khamsehnezhad 2016 Berlin

 the inspection of butt fusion and electrofusion joints in polyethylene (PE) pipes. Depending on the technique and inspection procedure, various types of flaw, including discrete planar lack of fusion, particulate contamination, voids, cold fusions and pipe under-penetration can be detected. However, the usefulness...

DEVELOPMENT OF PE-UHMW PIPES TECHNOLOGY AND STANDARD IN CHINA

Author(s) : Aimin Xiang, Jianling Xie, Yuanzhang Yu, Yufeng Ren 2016 Berlin

PE-UHMW pipes standard and application in China are introduced. In this study, the tensile properties, charpy impact strength and abrasion characteristics of PE-UHMW pipes were investigated. These results demonstrate the excellent properties of PEUHMW pipes. A novel method of testing melt flow rate was also...

DEVELOPMENT OF THE RING FATIGUE TESTING METHOD FOR COMPOSITE PIPES

Author(s) : Yuji Higuchi, Rei Hyuga, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2016 Berlin

Recently, thermoplastic-based composite pipes have been developed in order to satisfy the higher requirements for gas and water distribution. Although the stress rupture test is now the major test method used to evaluate the long-term performance of these pipes, developing a new, convenient test method making it...

DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF PE JOINTS

Author(s) : Mats Bergman, Karin Jacobson 2016 Berlin

The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association (SWWA) has funded a R&D project to investigate different methods suitable for installation inspection of PE joints in field. Methods like phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT), microwave technology and digital radiography were studied. Digital radiography shows...

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CHLORINATED MEDIA TO PE PIPE MATERIALS

Author(s) : Amaia Bastero, Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank 2016 Berlin

The effect of chlorinated water environment to plastic pipes has been intensively investigated in recent years and proved to affect the lifetime of plastic pipes. Since it is known that the use of the different disinfectants (ClO2, HClO/ClO- ) imply different degradation rates, understanding the conditions...

ELECTROFUSION JOINING PERFORMANCE OF VERY LARGE PRESSURE PIPES PRODUCED WITH MFR5<0.2 G/10MIN PE100

Author(s) : Predrag Micic, Cliff Mure 2016 Berlin

An extensive investigation was conducted into the electrofusion compatibility of pipes produced using a PE100 resin with an MFR5 value below 0.2 g/10min. The electrofusion (EF) joining program included pipes up to 800 mm in diameter and the use of electrofusion couplers and saddle type fittings as well as varying...

EVALUATING STRAIN HARDENING (SH) AND CRACKED ROUND BAR (CRB) TEST METHODS WITH RESPECT TO MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS AND CORRELATION TO NOTCHED PIPE TEST (NPT)

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Dongyu Fang 2016 Berlin

Latest developments in polyethylene production (hexene co-monomer and bi-modality) have increased the material’s Slow Crack Growth (SCG) properties, which is a time dependent brittle type failure under low stress levels and one of the most important long term properties of pipe grade polyethylene materials. Despite...

EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE OF PVC PIPES FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION IN JAPAN

Author(s) : Yuichiro Goto, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2016 Berlin

The damage of PVC pipes caused by the great earthquakes was investigated in Japan by various organizations including public and private institutions. As a result of these investigations it is found that high-impact modified PVC pipes with the long insertion length have the least failures. Moreover it is also reported...

EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE TO THIRD PARTY ATTACKS OF PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : Hiroto Taguchi, Hideto Kurokawa, Kaori Numata 2016 Berlin

This study pursued a quantitative evaluation of “the resistance to third party attacks”, whether pipes are destroyed or not, of two polyethylene pipes (PE80 and PE100) and two polyamide12 (PA) pipes. Two types of tests that simulate the impact from actual digging machine (attack simulation test) and four types of...

EXPANDING THE APPLICATION RANGE OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE FOR USE AS AN INNER-LINER MATERIAL IN REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPE AND STEEL PIPE

Author(s) : Johannes de Bruin, Dr. Bert Dalmolen, Albo van Hateren 2016 Berlin

Normal High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as the fluid contacting element, or the “inner-liner”, in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTP) and steel pipes up to 65 ºC. Through a modification of the HDPE polymer matrix, by adding nanoparticles, the E-modulus can be increased. Research shows that...

FAST COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT POLYMERIC PIPE MATERIALS: EXTENDING THE USE OF THE CYCLIC CRB- TEST (ISO 18489)

Author(s) : G. Pinter, F. Arbeiter, A. Frank 2016 Berlin

The cyclic cracked round bar test has recently been added as a full-fledged ISO standard (ISO 18489) for comparison of polyethylene pipe grade materials’ slow crack growth resistance. However, possibilities of this test are yet far from being exhausted. Seeing, that polyethylene is only used in approximately 30% of...

FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYPROPYLENE IN CHLORINATED WATER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang, Gernot M. Wallner 2016 Berlin

The present paper aims to study the crack growth resistance of a black-pigmented polypropylene pipe grade when exposed to elevated temperatures and various environmental media (air, deionized water, ionized water with a specific chloride content, and chlorinated water) under the simultaneous application of cyclic...

FIBER REINFORCED LARGE DIAMETER POLYETHYLENE PIPE

Author(s) : Shi Jingdong, Tan Gangqiang 2016 Berlin

FIBER REINFORCED LARGE DIAMETER POLYETHYLENE PIPE (GRPE) consists of fiberglass as the middle layer, and HDPE as inner and outer layers to provide required strength and stiffness. This composite pipe is made by spirally winding under hot melt condition, pipe pressure ranges is from 0.8 to 1.6 MPa. The fiber reinforced...

FLEXIBLE PLASTIC SOLUTION FOR DISTRICT HEATING PIPES

Author(s) : Dr. Anton Vasilenko 2016 Berlin

In today’s world a lot of energy is wasted. More than 50 % of the energy is lost on its way to the customer. The fundamental idea of modern district heating is to recycle heat that otherwise would be lost and to use renewable sources to heat homes. In other words: a market place for green heat that reduces...

FLEXIBLE PRE-INSULATED THERMOPLASTIC REINFORCED PIPES FOR CITY HEAT NETWORK

Author(s) : Ostrovsky Dmitry, Shmelev Andrey 2016 Berlin

Pre-insulated thermoplastic reinforced pipes were developed for East European heating networks with elevated operating temperatures and pressures. In contrast to monolayer plastic pipes, high modulus aramid mesh reinforcement used in thermoplastic reinforced pipes allows significantly to increase both operating...

GENERIC ELECTRO FUSION PROCEDURES DEVELOPED BY THE PLASTIC PIPE INSTITUTE – MUNICIPAL ADVISORY BOARD

Author(s) : GREG SCOBY 2016 Berlin

The Plastic Pipe Institute Municipal Advisory Board recently completed the publishing of the “Generic Electro Fusion Procedure” covering 12 inch and smaller sizes. This publishing effort was conducted with a collaboration of water system operators and electro fusion fitting manufacturers specifically addressing...

IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW CHLORINE DIOXIDE DEVICE FOR ACCELERATED AGING OF POLYOLEFIN PIPE MATERIALS

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Anita Redhead, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Gerald Pinter 2016 Berlin

To maintain the high quality of potable water chlorine based disinfectants are frequently dosed into the drinking water network. Considering the oxidative nature of these species their long-term impact on the aging of polyolefin pipes is a matter of interest. In this study four polyolefin pipe grades were objected to...

Increased Internal Pressure Resistance Polypropylene (MRS 12.5 = PP125): How Polymer Design Has Led to Step-Change Performances and the Implications for PP-R Applications

Author(s) : Giampaolo Pellegatti, Francesca Tisi, Umberto Credali, Monica Galvan, Ines Mingozzi, Emanuele Burgin 2016 Berlin

An innovator and leader in the production of resins used in piping systems, LyondellBasell and its predecessor companies have served customers in the pipe industry for more than 50 years. Customers have succeeded in steadily replacing traditional materials such as cast iron, steel, clay and concrete; plastic pipes...

INSPECTION CHAMBERS AND MANHOLES FOR SEWER SYSTEMS – YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW

Author(s) : Vilnis Puce 2016 Berlin

Plastic pipe systems have more than 80 years of history. Plastic pipes have successfully managed to replace various traditional materials by providing reliable, noncorrosive, leak tight pipeline solutions. As pipes are not the only components of piping systems, logically would be to see the similar development of...

INTERACTION OF MICROWAVE ENERGY WITH HDPE AND ITS USES FOR INSPECTING THERMAL FUSIONS AND BASE MATERIAL

Author(s) : R.J. Stakenborghs 2016 Berlin

Inspection of non-metallic materials is becoming more important as more and more non-metallic materials are used in various applications. One method for inspecting this non-metallic material is by electromagnetic radiation in the 1GHz to 100 GHz range, or microwave energy. Microwaves interact with material in a...

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF PE100 GRADES IN CONTACT WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE

Author(s) : Herbert Terwyen, Roberto de Palo, Manuel Sanchez 2016 Berlin

New standards in Italy legally require that chlorine dioxide is used as a disinfectant in any new installation that treat water for human consumption. Chlorine dioxide is preferred to other disinfectants when surface water or water from rivers is used for drinking water supply and particularly Southern European...

ISO 13477 S4 TESTING OF AWWA C900 PVC PIPE

Author(s) : Sunwoong Choi, Tom Marti 2016 Berlin

Small scale, steady state (S4) testing per ISO 13477 is a lab-based procedure to determine the critical pressure at which a fracture will propagate following initiation in a given pipe material filled with a given test medium. The S4 test was originally developed for the natural gas industry using air as the test...

LARGE DIAMETER HDPE SLIPLINING – WHERE EXPERIENCE MATTERS

Author(s) : Luis Aguiar, Rafael Ortega, Robert J. Card 2016 Berlin

With the infrastructure aging and having to be extended beyond its useful life, the need for municipalities and governmental agencies to do more with less funding is even greater! As such, over the last several years, the use of HDPE for sliplining has increased in its use. Most recently, the use of HDPE for...

LATEST TECHNOLOGY OF SADDLE SCRAPER FOR POLYETHYLENE PIPE

Author(s) : Takehiro Fujii, Hideo Hirabayashi, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura 2016 Berlin

It is important to stabilize the scraped surface of the polyethylene pipe, even if some operator scrape the surface of the polyethylene pipe. In Japan this automatic saddle scraper is widely used for improving workability and plumbing quality The newly developed “Automatic saddle scraper” consists of the casing...

LESS IS MORE: POLYPROPYLENE MATERIALS FOR SEWERAGE & DRAINAGE PIPES WITH REDUCED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINTS

Author(s) : Jeroen Wassenaar 2016 Berlin

The environmental impact in terms of global warming potentials (GWP) and nonrenewable energy demand (NRED) of sewerage & drainage pipes based on PP-MD, PP-HM, PP-B, and concrete has been assessed using life cycle analysis methodology. It can be concluded that PP-MD and PP-HM materials are able to significantly...

LIFETIME PREDICTION OF PE100 AND PE100-RC PIPES BASED ON SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE

Author(s) : Andreas Frank, Isabelle J. Berger, Florian Arbeiter, Pavel Hutař, Gerald Pinter 2016 Berlin

Due to the high slow crack growth resistance of modern polyethylene pipe grades a reliable lifetime assessment of pipes with focus on stage II failure has become challenging. The current paper presents a scientific approach for a fracture mechanics lifetime prediction based on Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Tests....

LIMITS ON THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE PE100 AND PE100RC POLYETHYLENE RESINS

Author(s) : Carlos Domínguez, Nuria Robledo, Rafael A. García-Muñoz 2016 Berlin

With the last advances and improvements in the polyethylene resins used for pipe application, new methods for evaluating long-term mechanical properties need to be introduced. Standard PENT and FNCT tests needs more than one year for characterizing the new PE100RC grades with the consequent thermal ageing problems....

LOCATABLE PIPE TECHNOLOGY THROUGH GLOBAL COLLABORATION

Author(s) : Allison Crabtree, Yogesh Kumar, Jessie Allen 2016 Berlin

This paper presents a technology for locating plastic pipe buried underground. The technology was developed for the water market in India and, through intra-company collaboration, has been introduced to the water and gas markets in the United States. Information regarding product technology and end-use considerations...

LONG LENGTH HDPE PIPES FROM NORWAY – FROM PROBLEM TO A SUCCESS STORY

Author(s) : Miroslav Stanimirov 2016 Berlin

Long length pipes, which are these days often used as high quality and cost efficient solution in various types of projects, are actually product of a problem that PE pipe installers were facing in early days of plastic pipe business. That problem was low reliability of PE pipe joints. The only logical solution was to...

Long term influence of defects in butt fusion joints on PE100 pipes and NDT detection of them

Author(s) : Jörg Wermelinger, Oliver Hein 2016 Berlin

More and more a strong desire is noticeable for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) of welded PEjoints. The objective is to determine the long term performance of plastic piping systems made from PE100. To assess the impact of “mostly known defects“ on the long term performance of a welding, well-defined flaws have to...

LONG-TERM BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : Mitsuaki Tokiyoshi, Philippe Vanspeybroeck, Kensei Inoue, Stephan Fullgrabe, Takashi Kuriyama, Toshinori Kawabata, Joji Hinobayashi 2016 Berlin

Big diameter polyethylene pipes used an important role due to superior performance (Flexibility, light weight, long lifetime and tighten joint) for water and industrial supply to several countries. However according to standard concerned Polyethylene pipes as like ISO4427 we are being used solid wall pipe with too...

LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF CORRUGATED HDPE PIPES MANUFACTURED WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS FOR COMMUTER RAILROAD APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer, Leslie McCarthy, Andrea Welker, Eric Musselman 2016 Berlin

A pilot study was conducted with the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority to evaluate the performance of corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with post-consumer recycled materials in their railroad applications. Two corrugated HDPE pipes – one manufactured with 100% virgin materials and one manufactured with...

LONGITUDINAL CRACK IN LARGE PVC-U PRESSURE PIPES. PIPE GELATION INFLUENCE

Author(s) : Joaquín Lahoz Castillo 2016 Berlin

Three typical case study of longitudinal cracks found in large dimension PVC-u pipes installed in Spanish irrigation networks are presented for discussion. Gelation level of those pipes using EN-ISO 1452-2 alternative test methods DCM, DSC and Tensile test has been evaluated. Irrigation networks in Spain extensively...

Main drivers and barriers for plastic pipes in Europe

Author(s) : Davidovski Zoran, 2016 Berlin

The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) and it Application Group Civils working group initiated a new project at the beginning of 2015, to find a way of improving the communication and promotion of TEPPFA and its projects to the industry. This project was divided into the two phases with the...

MECHANICAL STABILIZATION OF RIGID PVC COMPOSITIONS

Author(s) : Thomas C. Pedersen, Robert R. Kwapisz 2016 Berlin

This paper presents rheological data on simple rigid PVC compositions lubricated paraffin wax, calcium stearate, and oxidized polyethylene wax. These three materials comprise the most widely used lubricant system for rigid PVC in North America. The influence of certain paraffin wax characteristics will be discussed....

Modeling migration from plastic pipes into drinking water

Author(s) : P. Mercea, A. Kalisch, O. Piringer 2016 Berlin

The theoretical estimation of migration processes from plastic pipes into drinking water is a versatile and recognized method to assess their compliance with the existing regulations and guidelines. However the quality of these estimations depends on the accuracy with which the input data for the calculations is...

MULTI LAYER FOAM CORE (MLFC) PIPE BECOMES A STANDARD PIPE, WORLD WIDE

Author(s) : Rob G. Spekreijse, Helmuth Rijnhart 2016 Berlin

World wide the MLFC pipe market is growing especially the PVC MLFC pipe market. Standards are established first in Europe, Australia, then the America’s, Japan and recently Asian countries are recently following. The main driver using MLFC pipe is reducing the costs of pipe by using less (virgin) material with a...

NEW EN STANDARD PVC-ORIENTED PLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS

Author(s) : HENK MEERMAN 2016 Berlin

PVC-Oriented is the second generation of PVC-Unplasticized. Molecular orientation of PVC-U pipes results in a strong improvement of the physical and mechanical properties. The new draft European standard for PVCoriented plastic piping systems is based on the ISO 16422 “Pipes and joints made out of oriented...

NEW PE-RT TYPE II MATERIAL FROM INNOVATIVE CATALYST SYSTEM

Author(s) : Dr. Gerd Mannebach 2016 Berlin

With a new and innovative catalyst concept it is possible to produce a bi-modal PE-RT Type II material with excellent properties in a single reactor process. The catalyst is based on two different metallocene components, whereas one component doesn’t incorporate any co-monomer and the other component shows a typical...

New Potentials of Lightweight Structures for Pipe Extrusion Products – Appliances of Reinforcements from short to endless Fibers

Author(s) : Prof. Dr. Jens Liebhold, 2016 Berlin

To take the advantages of the excellent properties of fiber-reinforced components even more economically and industrially, new ideas to implement these potentials are in demand. Only with the introduction of fibers in a plastic matrix, the elastic behavior is changed towards to higher stiffness, strength and impact...

NEW TRENDS IN STABILIZERS FOR PVC PIPE

Author(s) : Mario Berna, Alessandro Tinarelli 2016 Berlin

The PVC pipes are currently manufactured using a wide range of stabilizer systems. European market was historically based on Lead stabilizers that have been entirely replaced by COS (Organic-based and/or Calcium-Zinc) systems thanks to the Voluntary Commitment of the European Stabilizer Producers Association within...

NOVEL POLYOLEFIN SOLUTIONS – INCREASING PRODUCTION RATE OF PIPES AND FITTINGS WITH SUPERIOR PROPERTIES

Author(s) : Antti Tynys, Dongyu Fang, Prashant Nikhade, Mark Yu, Tomi Kangas 2016 Berlin

The need for larger diameter pipes and fittings for in-house heating, plumbing and domestic water systems is pushing the existing materials and processes to their limits. More often final products cannot be produced without penalties either in production rate or in final product quality. This paper discusses...

PE4710 MITERED ELBOW DESIGN JUSTIFICATION BY FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Author(s) : Gerry Groen, Ernest Lever, Oren Lever 2016 Berlin

A design justification for reinforcement of fabricated Polyethylene elbows is presented. The acceptance criteria is that the average stress in the mitered wall of fabricated elbow shall not exceed the hoop stress in the matching pipe. ASTM and ISO standards have established requirements for the geometry, production...

PENT STUDY OF CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPE RESINS

Author(s) : Carl F. Baker 2016 Berlin

The performance of HDPE resins with regards to slow crack growth has increased dramatically over the past two decades. The most common test method for pipe products is ASTM F1473, Standard test Method for Notch Tensile Test to measure the resistance to Slow Crack Growth of Polyethylene Pipes and Resins (PENT). Results...

PERFORMANCE OF A COUNTER-ROTATING CONTINUOUS MIXER FOR BI-MODAL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

Author(s) : Nakagawa Tomokazu, Kazuo Yamaguchi 2016 Berlin

Bi-modal high density polyethylene (HDPE) has become more popular in recent years, because it has both easier processability and higher mechanical strength. The easier processability is brought from low molecular weight component and the higher mechanical strength is brought from high molecular weight component. The...

PIPE BURSTING ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE IN COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY’S REGULATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION ON THE PROJECT

Author(s) : Edward Alan Ambler, John Matthews, Lawrence Pultz, Ryan Stowe 2016 Berlin

This paper summarizes the design and implementation of the largest asbestos cement pipe bursting project performed to date within the United States. The paper also presents regulatory information required to properly track and document an asbestos cement pipe bursting project while meeting the National Emissions...

POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN HOT CLIMATES – TWO DECADES OF TECHNICAL CHALLENGES

Author(s) : Mohana Murali 2016 Berlin

Polyethylene pipes have been used for over half a century in Europe and North America and just over two decades in the Middle East. A recurring misgiving amongst first time users is the behavior of the pipes in the extreme climatic conditions such as the Arabian Gulf. High temperatures do exist but there are...

POLYETHYLENE USED IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

Author(s) : Dr. Holger Bruening, Detlef Schramm 2016 Berlin

Applications at elevated temperatures like cable conduit pipes for high voltage cables, pipelines used in oil industry or in industrial plants offer new possibilities for PE but additional requirements in such applications have to be taken into account. Long term experience in using PE100 pipes with respect to easy...

POLYPROPYLENE MULTI-LAYER-PIPES - 100 YEAR LIFETIME ASSESSMENT USING LINEAR ELASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS

Author(s) : Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Gerald PINTER, DI Florian ARBEITER 2016 Berlin

Applying scientifically well established and investigated linear fracture mechanic methods (LEFM) the kinetics of the slow crack growth (SCG) on polypropylene layers and coextruded interfaces on multi-layer-pipes could be investigated. Taking effects of ageing and stress relaxation during the service lifetime into...

Polypropylene Pipe: An Evolving Market

Author(s) : Steve Sandstrum, Stefan Dreckoetter, Zak Schultz 2016 Berlin

This paper provides a historical overview of the development of polypropylene (PP) for piping applications. The discussion includes a historical review of each step in the evolutionary trend for PP piping materials over the last 40 years and culminates with a focus on the most recent development in PP piping...

POTENTIALS OF TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY FOR THE INSPECTION OF PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : Stefan Kremling, Thomas Hochrein, Peter Heidemeyer 2016 Berlin

In plastics industry, the use of terahertz technology opens up opportunities for novel non-destructive and contactless testing applications. For example, the thickness of individual layers of a foamed multilayered plastic pipe can be monitored contactless and continuously during the extrusion process. Furthermore,...

PREDICTING SERVICE LIFE FOR RECYCLED PE MATERIALS VIA THE UNNOTCHED CONSTANT LIGAMENT STRESS (UCLS) TEST

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer, Rick Thomas 2016 Berlin

A new test method was developed to evaluate the stress crack resistance of HDPE materials containing recycled content. The method involves testing un-notched specimens in an elevated temperature bath under a specified stress. The new test method was published in March of 2016 as ASTM F3181, Standard Test Method for...

PREDICTING THE LIFETIME OF PE50 GAS PIPES UNDER POINT LOADING

Author(s) : Frans Scholten, Ernst van der Stok 2016 Berlin

The residual quality of first generation PE50 gas pipes, installed in Netherland between 1961 and 1979, is still remarkably good. The only premature failures of a few PE50 pipes were exclusively caused by point loads. When under point loading, they started failing in practice after 8 to 26 years, in a brittle manner....

PVC4Pipes Training and Presentation Packages

Author(s) : Jean-Francois Greiner, Steve Tan, Alastair Walmsley 2016 Berlin

PVC4Pipes, a non-profit association founded in Brussels in 2003, whose main purpose is to support and stimulate the use of PVC pipe systems, has recognized the need to improve the knowledge and the perception in the market of the quality and environmental sustainability of PVC pipe systems. So a series of...

QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF IN-PLANT AND POST-USE PE RECYCLATES FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Reinhold W. Lang, Patrick R. Bradler, Joerg Fischer, Dominik Poehlmann, Steven Schmidt, Ansgar Niehoff 2016 Berlin

In the present paper, a highly effective test and characterization concept for polymer recyclate materials is proposed and validated. Based on the proposed methods, a study was carried out to investigate the potential of in-plant and post-use PE recyclates from various applications to be utilized in PE recyclate...

QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF JOINTS IN GRAVITY FLOW PLASTIC PIPES

Author(s) : David Becerril García, Jacinto Cortés-Pérez, Ian D. Moore 2016 Berlin

Joint performance of joints in gravity flow buried pipelines is very important since joint failure could produce structural or service limits to the system. Standards have been developed to evaluate that joints have the necessary structural and leakage capacities which specify test methods that are not clear and do...

REACHING NEW FRONTIERS AND MAINTAINING MOMENTUM IN THE PLASTICS PIPING MARKET

Author(s) : White G. Jee 2016 Berlin

The Lake Charles Chemicals Project (LCCP) is a new chemicals plant facility and as a result, corrosion and compatibility as well as cost play a very important role in the selection of piping components. For the purpose of this case study, the focus will be the high density polyethylene (HDPE) piping system used in the...

RECENT PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS IN PIPELINES WITH ADVANCED GRADES OF POLYOLEFINS

Author(s) : Marco Michelotti, Raffaella Sartini 2016 Berlin

Polyolefins piping systems have greatly evolved over the last decade through both material innovation and extrusion technologies which have undergone significant advancement. Though high density polyethylene and polypropylene pipes are currently estimated as the best solution for a safe fluid supply, various compounds...

Reducing operational risk in vintage plastic distribution systems

Author(s) : Ernest Lever, Yongming Liu, Yiming Deng 2016 Berlin

This collaborative program will provide an integrated set of quantitative tools that will provide a structured approach to reducing operational risk in vintage plastic distribution systems susceptible to Slow Crack Growth failures. A novel endoscopic structured light scanning tool will be developed and prototyped for...

REINFORCED TWIN WALL CORRUGATED PIPES: THE NEXT EVOLUTION IN SEWER EFFICIENCY

Author(s) : Sergey Shalyapin 2016 Berlin

Steel reinforced twin wall pipe (SRTWP) is a new generation of corrugated plastic pipes which has a multilayer structure with an omega-shape steel profile indented into a polymer wall whereby these pipes combine the best benefits of plastic and metal solutions – high corrosion, abrasion and chemical resistance, low...

RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR ASSESSING SEISMIC RISKS ON POLYETHYLENE GAS PIPELINES

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Charles FERNANDEZ, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Bertrand SEVRE, Florent ANGELINI 2016 Berlin

Representative earthquake loadings have been reproduced in the ENGIE Lab-CRIGEN laboratories on three PE grades, including an excavated old PE63 pipe operated during more than 35 years. Dynamic loading does not alter the pipe residual performances for the three PE families tested, as shown by both the hydrostatic...

RESIDUAL QUALITY OF EXCAVATED UPVC GAS AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPELINES

Author(s) : Frans Scholten, Ernst van der Stok, Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel, Mike Boege 2016 Berlin

The current condition of 35-50 years old uPVC main (110 mm) and service (32 mm) pipes for gas and water distribution was assessed. From 27 excavation sites in total about 400 segments of 1.2 meters length each were tested using many techniques. The K-value (average molecular weight) of the PVC, the degree of gelation...

RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE EXTRUDED POLYOLEFIN PIPES

Author(s) : Pavel Hutař, Jan Poduška, Jaroslav Kučera, Eva Nezbedová, Andreas Frank, Jiří Sadílek, Gerald Pinter 2016 Berlin

Residual stresses can significantly influence the lifetime of polymer pipes. Therefore, realistic estimation of residual hoop stress can contribute to accurate lifetime estimations. The previously used “accurate method” is quite time consuming and needs a lot of specimens to be prepared and treated. A simplified...

REVIEW OF QUALITY, APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR PE PRESSURE PIPE IN CHINA

Author(s) : ZhanJie Wang, Cindy Wang 2016 Berlin

With the offers of whole value chain people, the application of PE pressure pipes has been increased widely in China since 1990’s, especially for gas pipes. Compounding PE material ensures the qualified pipes being used for infrastructure projects. There are some Innovation products from pipe producers to enlarge...

REVIEW OF REGULATIONS WHICH ENSURE THE SAFETY OF PIPE MATERIALS: HOW PVC-U PIPES APPLY

Author(s) : Dr Chris Howick 2016 Berlin

Rigid PVC (PVC-U) is a well-established material for pipe systems for drinking water, with use dating back to the 1930s. In order for PVC-U to be used in drinking water systems, manufacturers must comply with all of the relevant regulations. These include self-assessment systems, where manufacturers demonstrate that...

SAVING MATERIAL IN PLASTIC PIPE PRODUCTION

Author(s) : Helmuth Rijnhart 2016 Berlin

As the cost of raw material is the dominant part of cost price in plastic pipe, pipe producers internally check on scrap rates and overweight to get the lowest cost price.  Scrap rates are mostly defined as start-up scrap. But scrap is also production that is in not in spec, production of pipe that has burning...

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSING FOR ZEBRA MUSSEL ABATEMENT USING DOUBLE CONTAINED ADVANCED PE

Author(s) : Kim Endsley, Joseph Poniatowski 2016 Berlin

In order to free itself from the rising costs of water supplied by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department, the Karegnondi Water Authority proposed a new water intake and delivery system from Lake Huron to Flint, Michigan. Because of the recent introduction of the zebra mussel into North America’s Great Lakes, a...

STRAIN HARDENING MODULUS: A MEASURE FOR RANKING TIME TO FAILURE OF RANDOM POLYPROPYLENE PIPE MATERIALS

Author(s) : Rieky Steenbakkers, Linda Havermans, Patrick Voets, Jonathan Rabiei, Rudy Deblieck 2016 Berlin

The resistance to Slow Crack Growth of HDPE is related to the strain hardening modulus as determined from a tensile test at 80 °C. Correlatio ns between traditional methods (e.g. Full Notched Creep Test, Notched Pipe Test) and other accelerated tests (e.g. fatigue testing) show that the same failure mechanism is...

Structural wall multilayer composite PE pipe

Author(s) : Sun Qingjun, Liu Tongxi and Zhang Tianjun 2016 Berlin

A new composite PE pipe for pressure applications has been developed which combines the following features: polyethylene based, of structural wall, of multiple layers and steel reinforced. Another outstanding feature of this product is that large diameters up to dn2200-2600mm can be made and higher ring stiffness is...

Sustainability of PVC (Vinyl) Pipe: A Comprehensive Environmental Review of PVC Pipe

Author(s) : Bruce Hollands 2016 Berlin

The 2016 “Sustainability of PVC Pipe Study” is the first comprehensive environmental review of underground piping systems in North America based on a 100 year life cycle assessment methodology. The overall review includes a study of PVC pipe conducted according to life cycle assessment (LCA) standards. The LCA was...

SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL HANDLING SOLUTIONS FOR A MODERN PIPE PRODUCTION PROCESS

Author(s) : Giorgio Santella 2016 Berlin

The presentation focuses on the latest system solutions in storage, blending and feeding of main materials and additives, featuring the three main advantages that guarantee a continuous and profitable production of plastic pipes: flexibility, reliability and automation. The main element of modern design to obtain...

TECHNICAL DETAILS AND IMPORTANCE OF THE NEW METHOD OF DETERMINING “RESISTANCE TO OCCASIONAL FREEZE-THAW CYCLING OF PEX” AND “ENVIRONMENTAL ABUSE”

Author(s) : Haemi Pollett, Jacob John 2016 Berlin

In an effort to better understand the different demand upon environmental impact including prolonged and unexpected cold weather patterns, there is a need for the piping system to meet a degree of freeze and thaw resistance. The freeze and thaw cycling test protocol, Water Quality Association (WQA) ORD 1502, is...

TERAHERTZ MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PIPE EXTRUSION

Author(s) : Jan H. Petermann, Ralph Klose, Marius Thiel 2016 Berlin

This paper gives an introduction into the Terahertz measurement technique and shows the technology transfer from lab to pipe industry. The technical basics are explained how to measure pipes` wall thickness by THz pulse runtime differences. The measurability of common plastics like HDPE, PP, PVC and PA6 are...

THE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CIPP UTILIZING FURAN RESIN

Author(s) : Tomoyuki Kobayashi, Shigeru Ogasawara, Satoshi Nishijima, Hiroki Ohzeki, Shinichi Nishiyama 2016 Berlin

In this paper, it is reported the development and product design of CIPP with Biomass resin, “Furan resin”. To satisfy the both properties of Long Pot-life and enough curing speed of resin as the application of CIPP, latest hardener of acid catalyst was very effective to achieve the both properties shown above....

THE APPLICATION OF PVC PIPES AND THE NEW-TYPE FITTINGS IN THE SOUTH-TO-NORTH WATER DIVERSION PROJECT

Author(s) : Ben Hai Yuan, Ruixia Zhu 2016 Berlin

THE SOUTH-TO-NORTH WATER DIVERSION PROJECT IN CHINA IS ONE OF THE LARGEST WATER TRANSFER PROJECTS IN THE WORLD. IN 2014-2015, 17.296KM DN800MM PVC PIPES AND FITTINGS HAD BEEN SUCCESSFULLY USED IN THE SECTION OF THIS PROJECT LOCATED AT RAOYANG BRANCH LINE OF HEBEI PROVINCE. IN ORDER TO SOLVE THE CORROSION PROBLEM, THE...

THE APPLICATION OF RAINWATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUE IN THE PROJECT AT JIANGSU FACTORY

Author(s) : Zhou Minhong 2016 Berlin

Rainwater can be used not only for washing road and irrigation, but also for flushing toilet, washing clothes and industry use. Moreover, storm water regulation and storage facilities help reducing the burden of drainage piping system, cutting down the investment of storm water pipelines and lowering the possibility...

THE EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES AND EXTERNAL EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF PVC PIPES

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok, Jeroen Weller, Frans Scholten 2016 Berlin

This paper describes falling-weight tests as a first step towards determining the effect of residual stresses on the fracture behaviour of old PVC-U gas pipes at impact. Results showed that the level of surrounding pipe support, the quality of the material and the diameter of the striker had a major effect on the...

The Effective Use of Recycled Materials for Plastic Pipe

Author(s) : John M. Kurdziel, P.E. 2016 Berlin

Climate change, sustainability, and cost savings are all pointing to one main international need for plastic manufacturing: the effective use of recycled post-consumer materials. One sustainable remediation to this concern is the use of post-consumer materials in an ever growing stormwater management market....

THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY HYDROCARBON PERMEATION ON POLYETHYLENE PIPE

Author(s) : Ernest Lever, Karen Crippen 2016 Berlin

The objective of this project was to develop methods to be used by any plastic testing laboratory to quantify the effects of hydrocarbon permeation on: 1) the fusibility of plastic pipe; 2) the life expectancy of existing fused joints that have been subjected to hydrocarbon permeation; 3) the Hydrostatic Design Basis...

The European Commission’s PEF (Product Environmental Footprint) applied to plastic piping systems

Author(s) : Claudia Topalli, Tony Calton 2016 Berlin

In 2013 The European Commission published in the Official Journal a legislative package consisting of a communication and new methodology to assess the environmental footprint (EF) of products (PEF) and organisations (OEF). Differently from EN 15804, PEF and ISO methods have a horizontal approach which can be applied...

THE EUROPEAN PLASTIC PIPES INDUSTRY – RECYCLING COMMITMENT

Author(s) : Tony Calton, Roel van’t Veer, Henk Meerman 2016 Berlin

The European plastic pipes and fittings industry has made a commitment through TEPPFA to use a quarter of a million tonnes of recycled material a year by 2020. This presentation provides background to the growth in the use of recycled material for pipe applications and outlines some of the achievements to date and...

The Evolution of Elastomeric Joints in Plastic Pipeline Systems

Author(s) : Julian West 2016 Berlin

Until the late 1950’s water and sewerage pipe lines used predominantly ridged joints often made from tared yard and cement mortar. The introduction of ‘flexible’ rubber ring joints in the 1960’s allowed, angular deflection, transverse shear load and localized pipe deformation without leakage or failure of the...

THE EXPERIENCE WITH THE USE OF UPVC PIPES IN VARIOUS BURIED APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Frans Alferink 2016 Berlin

PVC pipes for buried applications for water, sewer and gas, has developed an excellent track record. PVC is very inert, has a high resistance against permeation of soil contaminations and gas components and meanwhile has a long proven lifetime. Next to that, the lifecycle costs of buried PVC pipe systems are amongst...

THE INFLUENCE OF BETA- CRYSTAL CONTENT IN PP-RCT MATERIALS AND CALCULATIONS OF THE TEST PRESSURE OF PIPE

Author(s) : Tu Xiang-qun, Wang Chao, Cheng Zhong-lin, Dong Bo-bo 2016 Berlin

This paper is to verify the impact of different contents of nucleating agent and annealing processes on the content of β-crystal. By using four-parameter equation of PP-RCT with requirements in different application conditions, different temperature coefficients and Miner's rules the design stress of PP-RCT materials...

THE NEW DIMENSION OF PIPE EXTRUSION

Author(s) : Brigitte Diekhaus, Ralf Mickley, Dr. Henning Stieglitz, Heinrich Dohmann, Dr. Markus Bornemann 2016 Berlin

The paper offers an overview of systems and components for efficient pipe extrusion, particularly for larger and thick-walled pipes. It introduces several possibilities for lower melt temperatures and internal pipe cooling. Together these systems can significantly reduce sagging and cooling length needed in the line....

THE REMAINING QUALITY OF THE PVC GAS GRID - RESULTS OF 10 YEARS OF ON-GOING RESEARCH

Author(s) : J. Weller, R.J.M. Hermkens, E.J.W. van der Stok 2016 Berlin

To prevent an enormous surge in the replacement costs of the Dutch PVC gas distribution grid a so-called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004. This programme determines the actual quality of old excavated PVC-U and PVC-Hi pipes using a tensile-impact test at temperatures varying from -25°C to +47,5°C,...

THE STUDY OF RESIDUAL STRESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY ON LARGE DIAMETER HDPE PIPE

Author(s) : Sun Jin, Hua Ye, Wei Ruo-qi 2016 Berlin

Nowadays large diameter HDPE pipes have been widely used in water supply, municipal gas, mines, nuclear service and other fields, while residual stress of large diameter thick-walled pipes in the extrusion processing have resulted in lots of engineering failure cases. In this paper residual stress and mechanical...

The study on long-term resistance to liquid media immersion of adhesive-coated steel tapes applied in metal reinforced polyethylene spiral corrugated pipe for underground sewer

Author(s) : Nan Li 2016 Berlin

The properties of adhesive-coated steel tapes in metal reinforced polyethylene spiral corrugated pipe (MRPSCP) are very important for the properties of MRPSCP. In the present research, we take 3 years to develop a new technology to fabricate BZ-SH99 adhesive-coated steel tapes, which have better properties than those...

The UFH/C System with PE-Xa Pipes is a Perfect Sustainable Solution for a Large Mosque Project

Author(s) : Alireza Sahaf Amin, Ebrahim Parchami 2016 Berlin

In this paper we would like to show the capability of radiant floor heating being used with complete plastic pipe system for the large space area of a large mosque (the Isfahan Mosalla Project). Human comfort is a critical consideration when designing a mosque in Iran and the traditionally-used normal unit heater or...

THE WAYANG WINDU GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT - FIRST EVER USE OF PE100 FOR A CONDENSATE PIPELINE

Author(s) : Andrew Wedgner, Gian Ganjar Zatnika, Sudi Mulyono 2016 Berlin

The Star Energy Wayang Windu geothermal plant in Java, Indonesia, generates up to 227MW of electricity using the natural steam from deep beneath the earth. Once the steam has cooled and condensed it is returned to the underground reservoir through condensate pipelines and injection wells. By 2012 the existing steel...

THE “NOTCHED CYLINDRICAL BARS UNDER CONSTANT LOAD TEST” (NCBT) FOR ASSESSING THE RESISTANCE TO CRACK INITIATION OF PE100 AND PE100 RC: DETERMINATION OF THE INITIATION TIME

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Adil BOUJLAL, Aymeric LOPITAUX, Romuald BOUAFFRE 2016 Berlin

A specific methodology has been designed by ENGIE’ R&T Division to allow an accurate determination of the initiation (incubation) time of the NCBT data. This methodology is based on two different data processing procedures. The first data processing proceeds from searching the minimum of the second derivative of...

Total overview of developments in PVC-O in size and couplers.

Author(s) : Paul van Doesburg, Berend Stel, Rob Spekreijse 2016 Berlin

PVC-O is the accepted pipe solution for the future. Worldwide, more and more countries go in the direction of PVC-O. The main applications for PVC-O at this moment are potable water, wastewater, irrigation and gas. PVC-O is produced for many years from the 80’s until 2007 the sizes were in majority small (mainly...

ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY INSPECTION OF POLYETHYLENE DAMAGED PIPES WITH CALIBRATED FAULTS

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Florent ANGELINI, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Manuel TESSIER 2016 Berlin

A test campaign has been carried out by ENGIE Lab-CRIGEN in order to evaluate the acuity of the Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique (PAUT) for detecting and sizing calibrated defects implanted at the inner surface of a PE pipe.These calibrated defectshad four different geometries, called “V-shaped”, “half-V shaped...

UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING STRESS ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC INSPECTION CHAMBERS

Author(s) : Zhang Wei, Wei Ruoqi, Zhou Minghong, Zhou Mingwei, 2016 Berlin

This article gives a brief introduction of plastic inspection chambers underground test, analyzes the stress borne by plastic inspection chambers from different angles combined with pressure sensors and strain gauges, sorts out some of the underground test data and analyzes the test data, and finally sums up the...

UPDATE ON PVC STABILIZATION FOR PIPES – COMPARISON AND TRENDS

Author(s) : Dr. Stefan Fokken 2016 Berlin

An overview of stabilizer systems for PVC pipes had been given at the last Plastics Pipes conference (PPXVII), detailing which technologies are used around the world. This presentation aims to give an update upon technology changes (replacement of Lead stabilizers by Ca-based stabilizers, situation of Tin stabilizers)...

VARIOUS APPROACHES TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE PIPING CONSTRUCTION QUALITY IN OSAKA GAS (2016)

Author(s) : Jun Abe, Takahiro Kasatani, Yuji Higuchi 2016 Berlin

Osaka Gas has carried out the production, supply, and sale of gas since 1905 and has distributed gas to 7,200,000 customers. The piping used for distribution was originally steel and cast iron pipes, but we have been adopting the use of polyethylene piping for low pressure distribution since 1980, and have to date...

WATER PIPELINE FROM TURKEY TO CYPRUS - 1,600 MM DIAMETER POLYETHYLENE 100 PIPELINE AND ITS FLANGE-TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION

Author(s) : Dragisa Dubocanin 2016 Berlin

The use of polyethylene (PE) pressure pipelines is increasing in international significance and therefore being used in increasingly challenging conditions. The reasons for this are manifold, including the excellent corrosion resistance of the material, the flexibility of high-density polyethylene 100 (PE 100) pipes,...

WATER TIGHTNESS OF FLANGE JOINTS AT VALVES – Full scale experiments and finite element analysis

Author(s) : Jan H. Sällström, Johan Sandström, Sven E. Sällberg 2016 Berlin

Flange joints connecting plastic pipes to valves are studied. The pipes have a reduced flange adaptor or a HP-flange adaptor. In the full scale experiments all flanges have a bolt circle diameter Ø725 mm. Four types of gaskets are used: an O-ring, a standard and a profiled gasket of EPDM with a steel core without and...

WHAT'S NEW ON PVC?

Author(s) : Ignacio Muñoz 2016 Berlin

Along the years, plastic pipes have become a main solution for water transportation and distribution, gaining market share to the traditional materials. Anyway, and considering our current situation as “stable”, we could clearly see that there is a trend of applications where materials have a significant market...

WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO SCRAPE THE PIPES PRIOR TO ELECTROFUSION - IS THERE REALLY AN OXIDE SKIN?

Author(s) : Karin Jacobson, Daniel Ejdeholm, Rikard Kärrbrant, Kenth Olsson 2016 Berlin

IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO SCRAPE OFF A 0.2 MM OUTER LAYER OF A POLYETHYLENE (PE) PIPE SURFACE AT THE LOCATION FOR THE ELECTROFUSION WELD PRIOR TO WELDING. THE REASON FOR THIS PROCEDURE IS SAID TO BE REMOVAL OF AN OXIDIZED LAYER WHICH CAN RESTRICT MOLECULAR DIFFUSION ACROSS THE WELDING INTERFACE LEADING...



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