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PPCA conference : 2021 Amsterdam

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.

 
A COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF PVC PIPES RECYCLING

Author(s) : A. Marangoni 2021 Amsterdam

The quality of infrastructures is a key driver for maximizing the performance of the utilities networks and minimizing the environmental impacts associated with their operation. The water and sewer pipes are key network elements to guarantee a satisfactory service to the citizens. Their end-of-life management is an...

A METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE CHARPY IMPACT STRENGTH OF NOTHCED SPECIMEN CUT FROM PLASTICS PIPES

Author(s) : Li, Yanjun, Xiang, Aimin, Xu, HaiyunBeijing, Xie, Jianling, Ho, Kinman, Xu, HaiyunBeijing 2021 Amsterdam

It is necessary to evaluate the impact resistance of plastics pipes as they have the potential to be damaged by hitting or colliding during storage, transportation and installation. As a well-established test method, the Charpy impact strength of unnotched test pieces cut from thermoplastics pipes is determined...

A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : A. Taraiya, P. Degenhart, M. Soliman, M. Boerakker, R. Handstanger, R. Kleppinger 2021 Amsterdam

Since the introduction of polyolefins for pressure pipes, continuous improvements have been made to meet ever-higher demands on their performance and to expand their application window beyond their original scope, mostly based on new resin formulations. Today, we also continue to push the limit to provide better...

A TRADE ASSOCIATION EXPLORED

Author(s) : Drew Mueller, Peter Dyke 2021 Amsterdam

HDPE Pipe holds a dominant position in several markets in North America: natural gas distribution, oil patch, mining, landfill and geothermal. So why are polyethylene’s municipal water and wastewater market shares so much lower than these other industries? How has the polyethylene industry been successful in growing...

ADVANCING 1-HEXENE-BASED PP-RCT: PIPE APPLICATION EXAMPLES AND NEXT CHALLENGES

Author(s) : Simona Africano, Emanuele Burgin, Thomas Boehm 2021 Amsterdam

Since the ‘80s, Polypropylene-Random (PP-R) has been a material of choice for producing plastic pipes for Hot & Cold water installations. Compared to other polyolefins, PP-R has higher stiffness and higher temperature resistance, along with the typical advantages of plastic pipes such as light weight, fast and...

ALLOWABLE SCRATCH DEPTH HISTORY & RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PE PRESSURE PIPE

Author(s) : Chris Ampfer, Gene Palermo, Ernest & Oren Lever 2021 Amsterdam

This paper looks at the origin of the 10% allowable scratch depth rule for polyethylene (PE) pressure pipe developed in 1971 and research that has been performed over the years since its inception to determine the validity of this rule. The 10% rule has been used by natural gas pipeline operators since the 1970’s to...

AN EVIDENTIAL APPROACH TO USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE FOR HYDROGEN FUEL GASES

Author(s) : Derek Muckle 2021 Amsterdam

A technical program has been undertaken to provide evidence on the suitability of polyethylene pipe and fitting systems for the distribution of hydrogen fuel gas. The underlying principle has been to evaluate material in the form of a pipe and to consider the performance of the pipe and of the welded jointing systems...

ANALYSIS OF PVC AND CPVC BLENDS

Author(s) : Saleem Shakir 2021 Amsterdam

Unplasticized formulations based on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) resins offer technical solution to pressure piping systems that find extensive use in residential and industrial applications. Building upon the desirable properties of the vinyl monomer, the chlorine content of...

APPLICATION OF PP-R COMPOSITE REINFORCED PIPES IN HOT AND COLD WATER SYSTEMS

Author(s) : Lei Wang, Guozhi Xu, Qiaoping Qiu, Weihua Lu, Yanwang Han 2021 Amsterdam

PP-R (random copolymerized polypropylene) has been widely used in hot and cold water systems. However, the standard PP-R pipes have the disadvantages of a large high-temperature thermal expansion coefficient, an insufficient notched impact strength, and a low temperature and pressure resistance. In this paper, a new...

APPLICATIONS OF HDPE PIPING TO SUPPLY WATER TO RURAL VILLAGES IN MOROCCO

Author(s) : Donald Swen, Leanne Pichay, Nicholas Vallin, Alice Wu, Jim Johnston 2021 Amsterdam

In the rural commune of Ait Bayoud, Morocco, two of the most remote villages in the area, Ilguiloda and Izgouaren, live with water scarcity. To meet their water needs, women and children walk several kilometers to the nearest spring each day, often multiple times a day. Consequently, children cannot attend school...

CHALLENGING THE 10% WALL THICKNESS RULE FOR HDPE MARINE PIPELINES

Author(s) : Ilija Radeljic, Ebbe Smith 2021 Amsterdam

HDPE pipe can be relatively easily scratched during the manipulation on the site, which is especially true for the marine pipelines. Installing the scratched marine pipe with the S bend method presents a risk and repair methods are usually performed. Currently, there is no standard defining the repair procedure, in...

CHEAPER AND BETTER NETWORKS REALISED WITH PRACTICAL DESIGN SOFTWARE

Author(s) : Andreas Moerman, Flip van der Valk, Mirjam Blokker KWR, Tjakko Haaijer, Jan Vreeburg, 2021 Amsterdam

Drinking water companies with ageing networks are facing vast amounts of drinking water network reconstructions during the coming decades. This development coincides with the energy transition, which puts pressure on the available space underground. These external drivers give drinking water companies an opportunity...

CONCEPT TO STANDARD – HOW RECYCLED MATERIAL WAS EFFECTIVELY ADDED TO U.S. STANDARDS FOR CORRUGATED HDPE PIPE

Author(s) : Daniel Currence, Michael Plumier 2021 Amsterdam

Over a ten-year period, the North American corrugated plastic pipe industry successfully demonstrated that post-consumer and post-industrial recycled materials could be responsibly incorporated into corrugated pipes used for drainage applications. Prior to this work, the material standards were established for ...

CONFIRMATION OF LONG SERVICE LIVES OF PE-PIPES UNDER HIGHER TEMPERATURES APPLYING CONVENTIONAL OVEN TESTS AND MODERN HIGH-PRESSURE AUTOCLAVE TESTS

Author(s) : Anja Armani, Helmut Zanzinger 2021 Amsterdam

PE-pipes are used in applications at temperatures higher than 40°C and long service lives like drainage pipes in landfill basal lining systems, drainage pipes in tunnels with high cover heights, geothermal applications, power plant technology, mining, underground cable protection pipes for power lines for...

DESIGN BUILD OF A 54” REDUNDANT FORCE MAIN UTILIZING HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

Author(s) : Bruce Mowry, PhD, P.E., Brian Dorwart, P.G., P.E., David Mancini, Bryan Fletcher, Roger Williams, P.E., Rene Brito, EIT, Arnelio Alfonso, P.E . 2021 Amsterdam

The City of Miami Beach owns and operates a 54-inch sanitary sewage PCCP force main (FM) that was built in 1977. This FM is the only transmission pipeline for conveying about 22 million gallons per day (MGD) of raw sewage to the wastewater treatment plant. In 2012, the City identified structural deficiencies in the...

DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MONITORING SYSTEM FOR HDPE WATER PIPELINES CROSSING AN EARTHQUAKE FAULT

Author(s) : Peter Hubbard, Linqing Luo, Andrew Yeskoo, Kenichi Soga, Krista (Moita) Araica, Gus Cicala, Marshall McLeod 2021 Amsterdam

Seismically active faults pose a risk to buried water pipelines that can be complicated to quantify. Fault type, slip rate, pipeline geometry, and soil conditions all factor into a complex soil-pipeline interaction. For critical pipelines that cross faults, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has become an attractive...

DESIGN OF LARGE DIAMETER BURIED PIPES

Author(s) : Anders Andtbacka, Peter Sejersen 2021 Amsterdam

In the late nineties a study of the behavior of buried thermoplastics pipes was carried out. The project had input and participants from both the plastic pipe industry as well as from external organizations. Six external leading experts in the field of pipeline design, not necessarily plastics pipes design, have been...

DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID AND INNOVATIVE IN-FACTORY PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THE PERFORMANCES OF PE PIPES CONTAINING VARIOUS PROPORTIONS OF RECYCLED POLYMER MATERIAL

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Pascal AUSSANT, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Myriam BECHROURI 2021 Amsterdam

Concerns regarding the environment and sustainable development have revived interest in the reprocessing and re-use of polymer materials from manufactured objects that have reached the end of their operating life. Within this framework, formal professional agreements have been put in place at global level under the...

DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH AMERICAN CONDUIT PRACTICES

Author(s) : Tom Stewart, Richard Hicks, Patrick Vibien, Lance MacNevin 2021 Amsterdam

Arguably, broadband technologies have become as vital to society as water delivery, waste removal and energy distribution. However, the role of plastic conduit in broadband is often overlooked within the piping industry and society in general. HDPE conduit is an essential component to the build -out of 5G cell...

DRAINAGE HANDBOOK STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR CORRUGATED POLYOLEFIN PIPE

Author(s) : Joe Babcanec, P.E., Dan Currence, P.E. 2021 Amsterdam

The newly released Drainage Handbook provides complete guidance on corrugated polyolefin pipe. Perhaps the biggest contribution this new handbook makes to the advancement of both HDPE and PP corrugated plastic pipe is the design procedure presented. The design procedure reflects the industry’s recommended practice for...

EFFECT OF CHLORINATED WATER ON THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE COMPOUNDS WITH RECYCLATE CONTENT FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Paul J. Freudenthaler, Joerg Fischer, Mathias Eder, Reinhold W. Lang 2021 Amsterdam

For controlled water disinfection, typically chlorine is used and preliminary studies demonstrate its aging and crack growth acceleration effects on polyolefin pipe materials [1, 2]. Although the use of recycled plastics is not prohibited in some ISO standards for polyolefin piping systems [3–5], only small amounts...

EFFECT OF INSUFFICIENT HOMOGENIZATION DURING THE EXTRUSION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES ON BUTT FUSION JOINT INTEGRITY

Author(s) : Mike Troughton, Amir Khamsehnezhad, Changyi Yu 2021 Amsterdam

When butt fusion welding polyethylene (PE) pipes in the field, it is often specified that the pipes must undergo fusibility testing in all combinations of suppliers, diameters and thicknesses before being fused in production. This is a very onerous and expensive task, but must be carried out to ensure that the PE...

EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND LONG- TERM DURABILITY OF AGED POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Shuhei Nishida, Shintaro Iwasaki, Hidefumi Yamanaka, Takahiro Kasatani 2021 Amsterdam

Polyethylene pipelines have been used for natural gas service applications for over 40 years in Japan. It is thought that they will continue to be used widely for many years. Therefore, it is important to confirm the conditions of the existing pipelines being used for the long term. In this study, polyethylene pipes...

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS ON THE LONG-TERM CREEP RUPTURE PROPERTIES OF PRESSURE PIPE GRADE UNPLASTICIZED POLYAMIDE-12

Author(s) : James F. Mason, Akshay Ponda, Hermann van Laak, Buc Slay 2021 Amsterdam

The effects of liquid hydrocarbons on long term strength of pipe grade thermoplastic resins is an important consideration when designing pressure pipe for use in the oil and gas industry. There is an extensive body of work going back several decades descri bing these effects for pipe grade polyethylenes, and all...

FINDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS AND THE TENSILE IMPACT TEST ON PVC PIPES

Author(s) : Sjoerd Jansma, René Hermkens 2021 Amsterdam

More than 20,000 km of rigid PVC (or PVC-U) pipes are currently in use for the distribution of natural gas in the Netherlands. In this decade, the majority of these pipes will reach their initially specified lifespan of 50 years. In the light of a possible replacement surge, it is increasingly important to identify...

FINDING THE RIGHT PIPE TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE WITH RAISED RESISTANCE TO SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok 2021 Amsterdam

For PE 100-RC, two tests are still under development for pipes: the point load test (PLT) and the accelerated notch pipe test (aNPT). The PLT was developed by a project group consisting of manufacturers and end users. The PLT determines the resistance to point loads as they can occur in practice. An earlier study...

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) USED TO SIMULATE THE STRESS/STRAIN OF THE POINT LOAD TEST (PLT) IN A BROADER STUDY TO SUPPORT THE FUTURE ISO TEST STANDARD

Author(s) : S. Nestelberger, J. Cheng 2021 Amsterdam

The Point Load Test (PLT) [‎ 1, ‎ 2] was designed to simulate the SCG (slow crack growth) failure initiated by a rock pressing into the exterior wall of a polymer pipe. Today’s PE materials sustain long PLT testing times, due to its high SCG resistance design. Consequently, an accelerated “PLT+” with the support of...

FIRST USE OF PE100-HT CONDUITS FOR ADVANCING THE CONTAINMENT OF UNDERGROUND HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES

Author(s) : Dr. Holger Brüning, Serge Hascoët, Yann Delanne, Didier Nozahic, Jawdat Mansour, José Santana 2021 Amsterdam

RTE operates, maintains and develops the French electricity network, including the High and very High Voltage cable lines. Their network is the largest in Europe and includes over 6400 km of underground HV links operated in 2018. The company is modernizing and developing its network by investing 1.5 billion euros per...

FLOWABLE FILL FOR PLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : Amster Howard 2021 Amsterdam

Flowable fill is used for many applications, but mainly for pipe trench embedment and backfill. There are three ways that using flowable fill can be kind to the environment. Because flowable fill is self-leveling and has a strength greater than the native soil, the trench cross section can be minimized. This means...

FRACTURE MECHANICS TECHNIQUES IN LARGE DIAMETER PVC PIPES

Author(s) : Antonio Rodolfo Jr., Vanderley M. John 2021 Amsterdam

Unplasticised (U-PVC) and modified (M-PVC) pipes used in irrigation and infrastructure applications, outside diameter 326 mm, were evaluated according to various fracture mechanics methodologies, including fracture toughness (stress intensity factor KC and energy release rate GC, both at fracture), essential work of...

FROM MULTILAYER LAMINATES TO INDUSTRIAL PIPE APPLICATIONS – A GUIDELINE

Author(s) : Gerald Pinter, Johannes Wiener, Florian Arbeiter, Abhishek Tiwari, Otmar Kolednik 2021 Amsterdam

For pipe applications, catastrophic failure due to crack growth has to be prevented by all means. Techniques to develop new and even tougher pipe materials are explored in this contribution. The aim is to create a multi-layer architecture, that exhibits high toughness as well as damage tolerance towards sharp notches....

FULL SCALE EVALUATION OF THE CORE TUBES GROUT INJECTION METHOD FOR LARGE DIAMETER HDPE OFFSHORE PIPELINES SINKING

Author(s) : Mehdi Jalili, Maziar Neyshabouri, Ashkan Nasrollahi 2021 Amsterdam

Seawater intake/outfall systems in nine lines with 1400/2200 m length and large diameter polyethylene pipelines (O.D. 2700 mm dia.) had been designed and fabricated to supply 4,200,000 cubic meters per day seawater into a basin in northern coast of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas/IRAN. The usual sinking by additional...

GROWTH IN THE USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN MEA FOR NATURAL GAS UTILITY DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Sultan Alkendi, Mohamed Jaber, Ahmed Atef Helal 2021 Amsterdam

The current push to reduce governmental energy subsidies has moved the need to adapt utility gas distribution networks toward the top of Middle Eastern governmental near-term agendas. Egypt is at the forefront of this push towards gasification. The United Arab Emirates has started on the path towards gasification...

HIGH THICKNESS AND LARGE DIAMETER PIPES MANUFACTURING WITH INNOVATIVE EXTRA LOW SAG PE100 IN MIDDLE EAST AND INDIA

Author(s) : Prashant Nikhade, Farraj Tashman 2021 Amsterdam

In the Middle East and India, PE pipes have expanded their applications in a big way for water supply, industrial effluents, corrosive chemical transportation, slurry transportation, city gas distribution networks and agriculture irrigation purposes over ductile iron, cast iron and other conventional pipes. PE...

HISTORY OF HDPE USE AT THE CITY OF PALO ALTO FOR POTABLE WATER DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Greg Scoby, PE 2021 Amsterdam

This paper will detail the steps taken during adoption of HDPE for potable water systems improvements including material justification, creation of related specifications, investigation of available piping components, qualification of contractors and the construction/inspection of related systems. The City of...

HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN POLYMER PIPES FOR NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION – TEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Author(s) : Stephan Kneck, Henrik Iskov 2021 Amsterdam

It has become ever clearer that the resources of natural gas are an energy source, which will be less important in the future due to limitations in use of natural reserves. In order to prepare for the future the gas industry is looking at the alternative fuel gases, one such fuel gas is hydrogen. In order to prepare...

INNOVATIVE MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MEASURING THE PIPE WALL THICKNESS EARLY IN THE EXTRUSION PROCESS

Author(s) : Christian Schalich 2021 Amsterdam

Plastic pipes for infrastructure and building applications are precisely specified with regards to wall thickness and diameter. Pipe manufacturers use different measuring methods in order to ensure the required dimensional accuracy and maintain a constant high quality. This paper introduces a measuring system based on...

INSIGHTS ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE PIPES

Author(s) : Peter Sejersen 2021 Amsterdam

Environmental Product Declarations of e.g. building products are to a large extent mandatory and we see that the European Union as well as individual Member States are implementing new regulation to secure sustainability in new buildings. The European Commission’s Product Environmental Footprint is one example and...

INTAKE AND DISCHARGE LARGE DIAMETER PIPELINE PROJECT FOR COAL FIRED GENERATION PLANT IN JAPAN

Author(s) : Mitsuaki Tokiyoshi, Yuichi Shibao, Yoshitaka Watanabe, Takeshi Yoshioka, Takashi Oka, Kohei Sasaki 2021 Amsterdam

It was common to use those pipelines for Steel in Japan. However Steel pipes have the long standing problems that it has been needed maintenance costs for rust prevention and antifouling property. Therefore it had been carried out the project that large diameter polyethylene pipeline applied for circulating water...

INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGES IN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF POLYAMIDE 12 GRADES ON THE RESISTANCE AGAINST SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Mario Messiha, Britta Gerets, Jan Heimink, Andreas Frank, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter 2021 Amsterdam

A majority of field failure of viscoelastic plastic pipes can be attributed to slow crack growth (SCG) and has become crucial in terms of characterization of newly developed materials – particularly, if they are designed for pressurized pipe applications. In this study, investigations in terms of SCG resistances...

INVESTIGATION OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYAMIDE 12 PIPE WELDS

Author(s) : M. Eckes & Dr. B. Baudrit, Dr. M. Troughton & D. Wylie, H. van Laak & J. Fritz 2021 Amsterdam

Unplasticized polyamide 12 (PA-U12) is increasingly being used in pipe applications, especially in the gas sector. However, the material behavior in the usual quality tests for pipe welds has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, two research institutes, worked in cooperation with a manufacturer of...

LARGE DIAMETER & THICK WALL HDPE PIPES PRODUCED AND DEVELOPED IN THE MIDDLE EAST – 3 CASE STORIES

Author(s) : Eng. Grigorios Vigellis, Eng. Mohamed Hageb 2021 Amsterdam

Continuous development and innovation in the production of plastic pipes made by high density polyethylene (HDPE) has enabled the industry to produce much larger diameter systems than ever believed possible. The enablers for production of such large plastic pipes are three main pillars: continuous innovation...

LONG-TERM DURABILITY OF NEW POLYMER COMPOSITE VALVES FOR DRINKING WATER NETWORKS

Author(s) : Jennifer Ravereau, Jose Teixeira Pinto, Malena Bernabeu, Jose Alacid, Jean-Philippe Le Goff, Frederic Mohier, Benjamin Rabaud 2021 Amsterdam

Drinking water network fittings such as valves are made of brass materials known to be robust over long periods. Due to the gradual inflation metallic raw material costs, composite plastic valves have grown in market share. Uncertainties remain, however, on their long-term reliability. The aim of this work is to...

MECHANICAL INTERGRITY OF HDPE BUTT FUSION JOINTS – EFFECT OF CARBON BLACK DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Nisha Preschilla, Sulistiyanto Nugroho, Birkan Eryigit 2021 Amsterdam

Carbon black (CB) has been used as a perfect and the cheapest solution to prevent photo degradation of polyethylene against UV light exposure. The effect of carbon black on the mechanical properties of polyethylene pipes was studied extensively, but only on well dispersed and distributed carbon black...

MOBILE EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY - A CASE STUDY USING INNOVATIVE MEANS OF ASSURING HDPE PIPE SUPPLY (IN BOTH THE PERMIAN BASIN OF WEST TEXAS AND THE MINING REGION OF CENTRAL FLORIDA)

Author(s) : White G. Jee, Wes Long, Marcello Russo 2021 Amsterdam

In 2018, the North American HDPE pressure pipe market experienced unprecedented demand and growth especially in the region of the Permian basin in west Texas. 1 As aninnovative means of increasing HDPE pipe supply in this region, the first modular mobile extrusion plant was moved to Pecos, TX. Using custom designed...

MODELLING THE MIGRATION FROM PVC-U PIPES INTO DRINKING WATER

Author(s) : C. Losher and P.V. Mercea 2021 Amsterdam

In the framework of the German Environmental Agency (UBA) requirements of plastic articles in contact with drinking water (KTW-BWGL-guideline), the compliance is verified by comparing so-called “expected concentrations at tap”, C tap , of substances contained in the plastics with specific limits in drinking water...

MODIFIED PLAIN STRAIN GROOVED TENSILE TEST TO EVALUATE LARGE DIAMETER PE PIPES

Author(s) : Thomas R. Kratochvilla, Patrick Grünbeck, Christoph Bruckner, Raimund Eremiasch, Harald Wilhelm, Mario Vukelja 2021 Amsterdam

In the last decades pipe dimensions of extruded PE pipes have reached new orders of size. Today, PE pipes with outer diameters of up to DN/OD 3500 mm are produced and used for pressure pipe applications like seawater intake/discharge, outfall, sewage and industrial process piping systems. To test the long-term...

MULTILAYER POLYMER PIPES – THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESS ON FATIGUE LIFETIME

Author(s) : Lukas Travnicek, Pavel Hutar, Jan Poduska, Andreas Frank, Florian Arbeiter, Jaroslav Kucera, Jiri Sadilek, Gerald Pinter, Lubos Nahlik 2021 Amsterdam

The application of recycled material in pressure piping systems has been considered lately – it was suggested, that the recycled polyethylene could be used as a part of a multilayer pipe together with virgin material. This type of pressure pipes is not availableon the market yet, so their properties can be only...

MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF THE CERTIFICAT ION SCHEMES IN EUROPE

Author(s) : Horst Stimmelmayr, Peter Sejersen 2021 Amsterdam

The voluntary certification scheme for plastic multilayer piping systems for hot and cold drinking water inside buildings is a joint effort of two key European organizations. It was initiated in close cooperation with the Brussels based European trade association of plastic pipe and fittings manufacturers, TEPPFA....

NEW CHALLENGING APPLICATION AS USED PEAT LAND HIGH PERFORMANCE PE-SGF PIPELINE SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE APPLICATION AS LARGE DIAMETER

Author(s) : Kensei INOUE, Mitsuaki TOKIYOSHI, Joji HINOBAYASHI, Takeshi KARINO, Toshinori KAWABATA, Takashi KURIYAMA 2021 Amsterdam

As the worldwide problems are over-population, unusual weather like as localized heavy rain and climate change. Against those problem, it has to need new projects to make a new agricultural field, drainage pipeline system and to spread the new underground irrigation system at peat land whereas spots of about 2 million...

NEW CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPES WITH HIGH THERMAL STABILITY AND LOW PERMEATION FOR PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Author(s) : Gisbert Rieß, Katrin Berger, Anna Kaltenegger-Uray, Florian Arbeiter 2021 Amsterdam

The effect of electron-beam and silane crosslink of polyethylene on the resulting permeation characteristics was investigated. Polyethylene sheets were processed and crosslinked by irradiation with high energy electrons and by grafting and subsequent hydrolysis of organosilanes during a reactive extrusion process. The...

ONLINE ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR DESIGN AND FIELD ENGINEERS

Author(s) : Dustin Langston 2021 Amsterdam

The design and installation of polyethylene systems can be complex, specifically due to the many applications and environmental conditions that surround those systems. Online design tools have been developed to address this complexity and the various factors that must be considered. These online tools used widely in...

OVERVIEW OF NEWLY PUBLISHED ASME NONMETALLIC PRESSURE PIPING SYSTEMS (NPPS) STANDARD

Author(s) : Donald McGriff, White Jee 2021 Amsterdam

In May of 2019, ASME published its first consolidated set of nonmetallic pressure piping standards consisting of:  NM.1, Standard on Thermoplastic Piping Systems NM.2, Standard on Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping Systems  NM.3, Standard on Nonmetallic Materials This presentation is part of an...

PIPE FOR FIRE EXTINGISHING DEVICE

Author(s) : Yoshikatsu NISHIDA, Yukihisa YAMADA, Masaya IWASAKI, Masaru TOMOBE, Yuichi KOUGA 2021 Amsterdam

By using polyethylene as the main material for this fire extinguishing device pipe, a resin-made fire extinguishing device is developed that is maintenance-free for eight years and can cope with the abnormal heat generation of lithium ion batteries. In order to prevent the internal extinguishant from permeating and...

PLASTIC PIPES FOR WATER DRAINAGE IN RAIL- AND MOTORWAY TUNNELS – A MAJOR CHALLENGE

Author(s) : Florian Arbeiter, Tobias Schachinger, Stefanie Eichinger, Gisbert Rieß, Michael Stur, Michael Steiner, Florian Saliger 2021 Amsterdam

Plastic pipes are of outstanding importance for the distribution of potable and process waters, oil and gas, as well as for sewer and waste water disposal. However, plastic pipes are also used in many other technical areas. Especially in European countries with mountainous regions, such as Austria, Switzerland, Italy...

POLYETHYLENE OF RAISED TEMPERATURE (PE-RT) IN LOW TEMPERATURE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

Author(s) : Alex Stolarz, Klaus Grønnegaard Lauridsen 2021 Amsterdam

Low temperature District Heating – COOL DH – addresses the challenges of the upcoming decades in the energy sector for new housing developments. Energy efficiency is an important aspect of modern building construction. Improved building insulation and other technologies result in lower heat demand and enable new...

POLYPROPYLENE PIPE IN DEMANDING HYDRONIC HEATING APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Steve Sandstrum, Chris Ziu 2021 Amsterdam

The market for high performance polypropylene (PP) piping systems in North America continues to evolve. Generally, PP piping systems have performed exceptionally well in a variety of challenging HVAC, industrial and plumbing applications. As a result, the engineering community in North America is embracing higher...

PRESSURE PIPELINE MADE OF HDPE – DETERMINATION OF REMAINING LIFETIME AFTER 47 YEARS OF OPERATION IN LAKE OSSIACH (CARINTHIA, AUSTRIA)

Author(s) : Ulrich Schulte, Dr. -Ing. Joachim Hessel 2021 Amsterdam

In order to protect the Austrian lakes effectively against the discharge of effluent, a 13 km long pressure pipeline made of high density polyethylene was laid on the bottom of Lake Ossiach back in 1971. The DN355 to DN200 pipes were produced from a first generation HDPE-compound. The classification would have been...

PVC Pipes TRAINING PACKAGE: 2020 UPDATE!

Author(s) : Sylvie Famelart, Vincent. Stone 2021 Amsterdam

In order to deliver to the market reliable and consistent information about PVC and the different PVC pipe solutions, a Training Package was developed a few years ago. The package was made up of a set of standalone PowerPoint slides, providing information on PVC-U and PVC-C pipe systems. Information on both general...

PVC PIPES WITH SUPERIOR ROOT INTRUSION RESISTANCE

Author(s) : Argnani Claudio, Ing. Gianpaolo Contarini 2021 Amsterdam

...Clogging of the pipes can be experienced in sewer systems after a short period of service, due to the intrusion of roots from plants and trees. Plants, and in particular their roots, are attracted by the water flowing inside the pipes. These roots will strain the connections between pipes, in particular the sockets...

PVC-O DN800: EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION FROM SOIL TO IRRIGATED LAND

Author(s) : Ignacio Muñoz 2021 Amsterdam

“Food is the new oil and gas” is a rather bold statement, but everyday more and more people are concerned about food scarcity. Bringing irrigation to not productive lands will change the lives of the community and if it can be done with a cost effective and the most ecofriendly solution, even better. This case study...

RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA PE WATER PIPE STANDARDIZATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE APPLICATION OF PE100 PRE-COMPOUND

Author(s) : Xinwen Yu, Aimin Xiang, Dongyu Fang, Peck Tze Kang, Jinghui Li 2021 Amsterdam

The Chinese PE water pipe market has developed significantly in recent years and particularly over the last 12 months. Against a background of water scarcity and growing urbanization, this evolving market has grown significantly in both size and quality awareness. On the back of past experiences, a fundamental...

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INTEGRAL JOINT RESTRAINTS

Author(s) : Guido Quesada 2021 Amsterdam

An important breakthrough for belled PVC pipe was made around 2006, when the first versions an integral joint restraint were released, after about two years in development. This type of restraint comprises a casing, usually made of metal such as ductile iron or stainless steel, a rubber seal, and a “C” grip ring,...

RECYCLING COMMITMENT OF THE EUROPEAN PLASTIC PIPE INDUSTRY

Author(s) : Ludo Debever, Peter Sejersen 2021 Amsterdam

The European Plastics Strategy is a priority for the European Union. Recycling more post- consumer plastics (PCRs) is paramount. That is why the Circular Plastics Alliance has been established. The alliance gathers public and private stakeholders in the plastics value chains to promote voluntary actions and...

RESTRAINED MECHANICAL JOINING DEVICES FOR HDPE PIPE: PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST PROTOCOL

Author(s) : Justin Brandt, Mike Griffin, Tony Cuvo 2021 Amsterdam

As plastic pipe gains share in new markets and applications, additional joining methods add further value, enabling continued growth for plastic pipes. To date, definitions of a “fit-for-purpose” mechanical joint for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pressure piping systems can vary significantly. As such, mechanical...

RIGHT STABILIZATION AND QUICK MEASUREMENT OF GEL CONTENT IN PE-XA PIPES

Author(s) : Alireza Sahaf Amin, Dr. Gholamreza Pircheraghi 2021 Amsterdam

PE-Xa pipes used in the hot water supply are required for high mechanical strength and high creep resistance at high temperature. Because of the higher cross-link degree of PE-Xa pipes as compared with other crosslinked pipes methods , these pipes which are made by peroxide crosslinking have better performance in the...

Risk Assessment of Non-Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) in potable water

Author(s) : Dr Ruediger Liske, Dr Tobias Eltze, Dr Tania Weyland, Marie-Laure Bertet 2021 Amsterdam

The migration of NIAS (Non-Intentionally Added Substances) into potable water is a recurring topic for the distribution of cold and warm drinking water and related materialsindustry. These substances are chemical compounds that are present in drinking water contact materials but have not been added during the...

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF HDPE PIPELINE LATERALS

Author(s) : Michael O’Rourke 2021 Amsterdam

The response of HDPE pipe laterals to seismic hazards are investigated. The hazard considered is Permanent Ground Deformation, specifically nominally uniform ground strain, abrupt offset in the longitudinal direction and abrupt offset in the transverse direction.

SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN POLYETHYLENE PIPES: FRACTURE SURFACE EVIDENCE FOR THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH MECHANISM IN ACCELERATED TESTS

Author(s) : Mark Boerakker, Rudy Deblieck, a Harm Caelers, Arno Wilbers, Tine Boonen a DSM, Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel 2021 Amsterdam

Components made of plastic are facing ever-increasing demands with respect to their production, use and durability. This also holds for gas and drinking water pressure pipes made of high-density polyethylene (PE-HD), where service lifetimes of up to 50 years and in some cases even 100 years are required. One of the...

SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF REPROCESSED PVC

Author(s) : Andreas Frank, Mario Messiha, Günter Dreiling, Norbert Schuler, Jens-Martin Storheil, Erwin Mayrbäurl, Stuart Ramella, Frank Krause, Rudi Berning, Philippe Gabriëls, Alpay Aydemir, Thomas Koch, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter 2021 Amsterdam

The Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Test has been applied to study the slow crack growth (SCG) resistance of virgin, recycled, and reprocessed PVC-U. This fracture mechanical test allows a quick ranking of the SCG resistance of PVC-U. A clear correlation between the K-value and the SCG resistance has been elaborated....

SMART TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOR ECONOMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC PIPE FORMULATIONS

Author(s) : Andrew J. White, Paul Dietz 2021 Amsterdam

FP-Pigments is a global manufacturer of a unique series of titanium dioxide pigment products and have been supplying the coatings, plastics, paper and inks markets for over 10 years, helping our customers reduce their raw material costs while maintaining product quality and performance. We have plants in both...

Sustainability is achieved through less time for excavation, less handling of soil excavated from trench, less hauling of materials (both to and from construction sites), and reuse and recycling. This all means less energy consumption: In many cases, thes

Author(s) : Amster Howard 2021 Amsterdam

Deeper pipe burial, less expensive and environmentally friendly backfill, uniform language for contractors and inspectors, simplified installations for smaller pipe, and allowable construction in poor soil conditions are highlights in the latest edition of AWWA M55 and all benefit the users of HDPE pressure pipe. This...

SUSTAINABLE STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC – 30 YEARS OF CA BASED SOLUTIONS

Author(s) : Dr. Stefan Fokken 2021 Amsterdam

NGO pressure and end of life disposal of PVC articles in the EU over 30 years ago, triggered intense discussion about the sustainable use of PVC and its additives. Stabiliser producers and downstream users of PVC stabiliser compounds base upon Lead and Cadmium based stabilisers have developed solutions ultimately...

TESTING AND APPLICATION OF POLYETHYLENE PRESSURE PIPING FOR NUCLEAR POWER IN CHINA

Author(s) : Hua Ye, Sun Jin, Wei Ruoqi 2021 Amsterdam

As a safe, clean, low-carbon and reliable energy source, nuclear power, together with hydropower and coal power, constitutes the three pillars of the world's energy supply and play an important role in the world's energy structure.With the strong support of national policies, China's nuclear energy has entered a new...

TESTING AND EVALUATION OF NANOADDITIVES IN U-PVC PIPES

Author(s) : E. Boccaleri, L. Palin, G. Rombolà, M. Milanesio 2021 Amsterdam

In the last decades, research on nanostructured materials as additives for plastics involved several polymeric matrices, but only limited studies and publications involve PVC. In this work, the context of rigid application of PVC (U-PVC) for pipes application was targeted, in order to test and evaluate the structural...

TESTING SPOOLABLE REINFORCED FLEXIBLE PIPES AND LINER MATERIAL FOR HIGH-PRESSURE HYDROGEN TRANSPORT

Author(s) : Sjoerd Jansma, Peter Cloos, Ernst van der Stok 2021 Amsterdam

This paper describes two different test methods used to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen through a reinforced thermoplastic pipe (RTP) system with a HDPE liner pipe and a gas-tight layer at a pressure of 42 bar(g) hydrogen and ambient temperature. One method involThe results of the aforementioned tests...

THE ADVANTAGES OF PE 100 GLOBAL CASE STUDIES

Author(s) : Youssef Taha, Rainer Kloth 2021 Amsterdam

In the early fifties, the first Polyethylene for the use in pipes was produced. Since then, the use of Polyethylene piping systems has spread rapidly around the globe to serve in various applications. In order to demonstrate the versatility and benefits of PE100, several companies founded in 1999 an association...

THE DEVELOPMENT TREND OF CHINA’S PLASTIC PIPE INDUSTRY RESPONDING TO CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC SITUATION

Author(s) : Zhanjie Wang, Yan Zhao, Melody Guo, Yanju Fan, Wei Tang 2021 Amsterdam

In the past ten years, China's plastic pipe industry has maintained a steady growth and made great progress in the upgrading of industrial structure, technological innovation, and improvement of quality levels. However, at the same time, in the face of the complex changes in the current economic situation, especially...

THE REGULATION OF PLASTIC GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. - UPDATES FROM THE PLASTIC PIPE RULE

Author(s) : Randall J. Knapp 2021 Amsterdam

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) promulgates Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations. Part 192 establishes the minimum federal safety standards for the transportation of natural or other gas by pipelines in the U.S. On Nov. 20, 2018...

UK WATER INDUSTRY RESEARCH REVEALING THE LONG- TERM AGEING PERFORMANCE OF POLYETHYLENE (PE) PIPES

Author(s) : Patrick Campbell, Joanne Claronino, Shana Meeus, Joseph Sanders, David Chrystie-Lowe 2021 Amsterdam

Polyethylene (PE) potable water mains, with design life of 50 years (BS EN 12201), have been in widespread use in the UK water industry for more than 30 years. PE pipe is light, flexible and reliable in comparison with other pipe materials and the UK water industry has made a considerable investment in replacing...

UNLOCKING MODEL PREDICTIONS OF PVCU PIPES LIFETIMES FOR THE DUTCH WATER UTILITIES

Author(s) : Karel van Laarhoven, Andreas Moerman 2021 Amsterdam

Pipe failure in drinking water distribution networks occurs as a result of loadings on the pipe that exceeds its strength. Especially, pipes that deteriorate over time have an increasing probability of failure. Prediction models that estimate when a particular pipe will fail can therefore be valuable tools in pipe...

USABILITY OF THE STRAIN HARDENING TEST AS A COMPONENT TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE PIPES

Author(s) : Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel, Kurt Engelsing 2021 Amsterdam

The strain hardening test (SHT, ISO 18488 [1]) becomes increasingly important for the characterization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) grades and pipes made thereof. With regard to small pipe diameters, a smaller test specimen than the one defined in ISO 18488 has been developed. SHT results were demonstrated to...

UTILIZATION OF HDPE RECYCLED MATERIALS IN SANITARY SEWER APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : John M. Kurdziel 2021 Amsterdam

The use of recycled plastics in high density corrugated polyethylene pipe for storm sewers, highway culverts and general land drainage applications has now been widely accepted by municipalities and transportation agencies. This acceptance has made it possible to convert what was once considered a single use plastic...

WHY PA-U12 HIGH PRESSURE PIPES DO NOT CARE ABOUT “ROCK ́N ́ SHARD” IN VIEW OF PAS 1075

Author(s) : Hermann van Laak, Jan Heimink, Mario Messiha, Andreas Frank, Christoph Bruckner, Thomas Kratochvilla 2021 Amsterdam

For high pressure pipes above maximum operation pressure of 10 bar, this paper emphasizes PA-U12 as the easy to install alternative to steel. It underlines the superb performance of PA-U12 pipes for alternative installation techniques without need for a separate mechanical protection. An unplasticized polyamide 12...

WORLDWIDE ISO ROUND ROBIN STUDY ON PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST FOR ELECTROFUSION SOCKET JOINTS

Author(s) : Jörg Wermelinger, Sunwoong Choi 2021 Amsterdam

In the development of an international standard on non-destructive test for polyethylene electrofusion socket (EF) joints, the inspection capability of the phased array ultrasonic test (PAUT) in assessing flaws in the joints was needed to establish procedure qualification of the test method. For this, a worldwide...



Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
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