Our site uses cookies necessary for its proper functioning. To improve your experience, other cookies may be used: you can choose to disable them. This can be changed at any time via the Cookies link at the bottom of the page.


Comparison Between the Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) and Conventional Creep and Creep Rupture Tests on Polypropylene Used In Corrugated Drainage Pipe

 

Bill R. Vanhoose, Jarrett A. Nelson, Christa K. McNish, Richard W. Thomas

Papers # 2014 Chicago

The Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) is a form of Time-Temperature Superpositioning (TTS) that involves measuring the creep rate of a sample while it is subjected to a series of isothermal temperature steps. The accelerated temperature results can then be shifted back to room temperature to produce a master-curve. Performing multiple temperature steps on a single specimen reduces the noise associated with sample-tosample variability. This test has been used for over 15 years to characterize the creep behavior of a variety of products made with different polymers. The products include high-strength geotextiles, geogrids, mooring lines, underground storage tanks, and pipe. The polymers evaluated include polyester, polypropylene, polyamides, polyethylene naphthanate (PEN), and polyethylene. The purpose of this study was to validate results obtained by SIM on polypropylene by comparing the SIM results to conventional room temperature creep tests. The results demonstrate that the SIM results correlate well to conventional tests for up to 10,000 hours. Additionally, the SIM results can be considered superior to conventional tests because one can control variables much better over a 24 hour period than a 10,000 hour period.

Related keywords : creep, strain, result, stress, temperature, time, term, mpa.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only

Related papers

2021 Amsterdam : ALLOWABLE SCRATCH DEPTH HISTORY & RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PE PRESSURE PIPE

Author(s) : Chris Ampfer, Gene Palermo, Ernest & Oren Lever

This paper looks at the origin of the 10% allowable scratch depth rule for polyethylene (PE) pressure pipe developed in 1971 and research that has been performed over the years since its inception to determine the validity of this rule. The 10% rule has been used by natural gas pipeline operators since the 1970’s to...

2021 Amsterdam : DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MONITORING SYSTEM FOR HDPE WATER PIPELINES CROSSING AN EARTHQUAKE FAULT

Author(s) : Peter Hubbard, Linqing Luo, Andrew Yeskoo, Kenichi Soga, Krista (Moita) Araica, Gus Cicala, Marshall McLeod

Seismically active faults pose a risk to buried water pipelines that can be complicated to quantify. Fault type, slip rate, pipeline geometry, and soil conditions all factor into a complex soil-pipeline interaction. For critical pipelines that cross faults, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has become an attractive...

2021 Amsterdam : INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGES IN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF POLYAMIDE 12 GRADES ON THE RESISTANCE AGAINST SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Mario Messiha, Britta Gerets, Jan Heimink, Andreas Frank, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter

A majority of field failure of viscoelastic plastic pipes can be attributed to slow crack growth (SCG) and has become crucial in terms of characterization of newly developed materials – particularly, if they are designed for pressurized pipe applications. In this study, investigations in terms of SCG resistances...

2021 Amsterdam : MODIFIED PLAIN STRAIN GROOVED TENSILE TEST TO EVALUATE LARGE DIAMETER PE PIPES

Author(s) : Thomas R. Kratochvilla, Patrick Grünbeck, Christoph Bruckner, Raimund Eremiasch, Harald Wilhelm, Mario Vukelja

In the last decades pipe dimensions of extruded PE pipes have reached new orders of size. Today, PE pipes with outer diameters of up to DN/OD 3500 mm are produced and used for pressure pipe applications like seawater intake/discharge, outfall, sewage and industrial process piping systems. To test the long-term...

2021 Amsterdam : MULTILAYER POLYMER PIPES – THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESS ON FATIGUE LIFETIME

Author(s) : Lukas Travnicek, Pavel Hutar, Jan Poduska, Andreas Frank, Florian Arbeiter, Jaroslav Kucera, Jiri Sadilek, Gerald Pinter, Lubos Nahlik

The application of recycled material in pressure piping systems has been considered lately – it was suggested, that the recycled polyethylene could be used as a part of a multilayer pipe together with virgin material. This type of pressure pipes is not availableon the market yet, so their properties can be only...

2021 Amsterdam : NEW CHALLENGING APPLICATION AS USED PEAT LAND HIGH PERFORMANCE PE-SGF PIPELINE SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE APPLICATION AS LARGE DIAMETER

Author(s) : Kensei INOUE, Mitsuaki TOKIYOSHI, Joji HINOBAYASHI, Takeshi KARINO, Toshinori KAWABATA, Takashi KURIYAMA

As the worldwide problems are over-population, unusual weather like as localized heavy rain and climate change. Against those problem, it has to need new projects to make a new agricultural field, drainage pipeline system and to spread the new underground irrigation system at peat land whereas spots of about 2 million...

2021 Amsterdam : PRESSURE PIPELINE MADE OF HDPE – DETERMINATION OF REMAINING LIFETIME AFTER 47 YEARS OF OPERATION IN LAKE OSSIACH (CARINTHIA, AUSTRIA)

Author(s) : Ulrich Schulte, Dr. -Ing. Joachim Hessel

In order to protect the Austrian lakes effectively against the discharge of effluent, a 13 km long pressure pipeline made of high density polyethylene was laid on the bottom of Lake Ossiach back in 1971. The DN355 to DN200 pipes were produced from a first generation HDPE-compound. The classification would have been...

2021 Amsterdam : RESTRAINED MECHANICAL JOINING DEVICES FOR HDPE PIPE: PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST PROTOCOL

Author(s) : Justin Brandt, Mike Griffin, Tony Cuvo

As plastic pipe gains share in new markets and applications, additional joining methods add further value, enabling continued growth for plastic pipes. To date, definitions of a “fit-for-purpose” mechanical joint for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pressure piping systems can vary significantly. As such, mechanical...

2021 Amsterdam : SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN POLYETHYLENE PIPES: FRACTURE SURFACE EVIDENCE FOR THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH MECHANISM IN ACCELERATED TESTS

Author(s) : Mark Boerakker, Rudy Deblieck, a Harm Caelers, Arno Wilbers, Tine Boonen a DSM, Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel

Components made of plastic are facing ever-increasing demands with respect to their production, use and durability. This also holds for gas and drinking water pressure pipes made of high-density polyethylene (PE-HD), where service lifetimes of up to 50 years and in some cases even 100 years are required. One of the...

2021 Amsterdam : USABILITY OF THE STRAIN HARDENING TEST AS A COMPONENT TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE PIPES

Author(s) : Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel, Kurt Engelsing

The strain hardening test (SHT, ISO 18488 [1]) becomes increasingly important for the characterization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) grades and pipes made thereof. With regard to small pipe diameters, a smaller test specimen than the one defined in ISO 18488 has been developed. SHT results were demonstrated to...

2021 Amsterdam : WHY PA-U12 HIGH PRESSURE PIPES DO NOT CARE ABOUT “ROCK ́N ́ SHARD” IN VIEW OF PAS 1075

Author(s) : Hermann van Laak, Jan Heimink, Mario Messiha, Andreas Frank, Christoph Bruckner, Thomas Kratochvilla

For high pressure pipes above maximum operation pressure of 10 bar, this paper emphasizes PA-U12 as the easy to install alternative to steel. It underlines the superb performance of PA-U12 pipes for alternative installation techniques without need for a separate mechanical protection. An unplasticized polyamide 12...

2018 Las-Vegas : Assessing the remaining service lifetime of PE pipes: an australian case study

Author(s) : Nolene Byrne, Rasike De Silva, Keith Lenghaus, Tim Hilditch

Plastic pipes have been utilized in the Australian gas distribution network since the early 1970s. The most common plastic type found in Australia is polyethylene (PE), although nylon is extensively used in New South Wales. Early installation of PE pipe was completed using the first generation high density type PE50...

2018 Las-Vegas : Design and qualification of PA-PERT pipe for oil and gas transportation

Author(s) : Liang Yu, Akshay Ponda, Dane Chang

Following the development of US shale oil and gas production since 2007, the demand for thermoplastic pipes with better corrosion resistance, and lower installation and operation cost than carbon steel pipe, has been growing significantly. Nylon 12 has been qualified for hydrocarbon transportation in offshore flexible...

2018 Las-Vegas : Evaluation and comparison of standard and accelerated slow crack growth determination methodologies: effect of the comonomer type influence

Author(s) : Carlos Domínguez, Álvaro Pérez, Nuria Robledo, Cristina González, Beatriz Paredes, Rafael A. García-Muñoz

Last methodologies for fast evaluation of the SCG resistance on polyethylene pipe materials are analyzed in this work and compared with traditional PENT and FNCT tests. Strain Hardening (SH), Crack Round Bar (CRB) and Accelerated Creep Test (ACT) will be good alternatives for evaluating PE100RC resins. Moreover, SH...

2018 Las-Vegas : Increasing HDPE butt fusion productivity by optimizing the cool time based on thermal mass characteristics without compromising joint strength

Author(s) : Amanda Hawkins, Jason Lawrence, Xiangli Meng

High Density Polyethylene pipes are used in various applications due to the material’s superior chemical resistance, pressure capability, and ductility. For the material to perform at the optimal design criteria, the connections and fabrications must be fused using repeatable procedures that specify proper fusion...

2018 Las-Vegas : Investigation of the creep failure behavior of polyamide pipes

Author(s) : Hiroto Taguchi, Kaori Numata

We elucidated the creep failure behavior of polyamide pipes. We conducted the hydrostatic test and Notched Pipe Test (NPT) at 80 and 90 °C for up to 10000 h for PA pipes whose creep failure behavior has not been fully elucidated yet. In the tests, the change in the failure mode from ductile failure to brittle failure,...

2018 Las-Vegas : Laboratory device for checking the thermal energy delivered by the electrofusion fittings

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Adil BOUJLAL, Aymeric LOPITAUX, Bertrand SEVRE

A special concept has been developed by GRTgaz Research and Innovation Center for Energy (RICE) for temperature mapping at the interface of an electrowelded assembly.The technical solution consists of a tubular piece in place of the real PE pipe, made of a non-weldable polymer with thermal parameters close to those of...

2018 Las-Vegas : Longitudinal crack in large PVC-U pressure pipes. pipe gelation influence. case study iii

Author(s) : Joaquín Lahoz Castillo

Irrigation networks in Spain extensively make use of plastic pressure pipes systems. Some recent failures focus the attention on Rapid Crack Propagation phenomena. Larger high-pressure PVC-u pipes are involved in most incidences detected. The level of gelation of those pipes were measured per EN-ISO 1452-2 test...

2018 Las-Vegas : Preparation and studying of thermoplastic cross-linked polyethylene

Author(s) : Cheng Zhi, Mingyuan Hu, Kaige Duan, Chaoxi Zhou, Dongming Yu

The PE properties are obviously improved by crosslinking modified to TPEX, which can approach to that of PEX, while still remaining thermoplastic. It can be processed by the common forming method of thermoplastic; the products can be hot-melted and the scrap can be processed to be reused. The two-layer structure...

2018 Las-Vegas : Sensitivity of strain hardening modulus to molecular structure of polyethylene

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Senthil K. Kaliappan, Joel Fawaz, Umesh Gadgoli

A series of non-commercial bimodal high density ethylene-α-olefin copolymers with systematically controlled molecular parameters over a wide range that would result in extremely low and high strain hardening modulus were prepared and tested Strain hardening modulus has been published as a standard test method (ISO...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationHanwha TotalEnergiesINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
TOP