PPCA conference : 2004 Milan

In this section, you will find a database of all articles presented and published by PPCA in biannual conferences organized by PPCA since 1970.
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PE 100 used in gas distribution networks: Camuzzi's experience in Italy and in Argentina.

Author(s) : Roberto Di Lucchio 2004 Milan

This speech shown the results of the two experiences with polyethylene PE 100 pipes for the natural gas distribution, carried out by Camuzzi in 1999th and 2001st, respectively in Italy and in Argentina. The pipeline in Italy reached the actual allowed pressure limit for the gas, i.e. 5 MPa. In Argentina, was...

20+ Years Experience with PE Pipe for Water in the UK

Author(s) : Headford, Hill, Wilson 2004 Milan

The United Kingdom is the most highly developed PE pressure pipe market in the world. Following pioneering work done in the USA and Germany, it was the UK that was first to adopt PE on a large scale for gas, and then for water distribution. The 100% PE policy of British Gas, and wide range of sizes used (at low...

A Multilayer Plastics and Metals Pipeline System for the

Author(s) : Hunter, Christodoulou, Greaves, Bowman, Bott 2004 Milan

The development of a pipe system designed to transport potable water through contaminated ‘brown-field land’ is described. The system is based around a multi-layer, aluminium reinforced PE pipe, and includes a full range of specially designed mechanical fittings to provide the end user with a total system...

A Novel Approach to the Qualification of Non-Metallic Pipe Systems

Author(s) : Gibson, Frost, Stratfold 2004 Milan

This paper discusses the possibilities offered by ramp pressure loading tests to generate data for determining the long term load-bearing characteristics of plastics pipe systems. In addition to ramp pressure loading, procedures are also considered where the pressure is held at a constant value for a period of...

A Novel Material for Plastic Pipe Applications

Author(s) : Forczek, Kerluke, Cheng, du Plessis, Seute 2004 Milan

This paper describes the process and modification of a standard class PE100 high-density polyethylene pressure pipe grade polymer to a class PE200 grade polymer, for the manufacture of thermoplastic pipes for both liquid and gas conveying. This modified polymer was developed through the collaboration of Ion Beam...

A View of the European Plastics Pipes Market in a Global Scenario

Author(s) : Raynaud 2004 Milan

Plastics pipes have gained a majority position in the European pipe market, and a global volume worth 2500 ktons in 2003. After a slight contraction in 2003, the thermoplastic pipe market is expected to continue steady growth in the medium term, mainly due to opportunities for replacement of water mains in aged and...

Alternative Stabilisers for PVC Pipes and Fittings

Author(s) : Fokken 2004 Milan

A status quo of the stabilisation of PVC pipes will be given first followed by the different political and environmental impacts on the currently used lead stabilisation. A prediction about further trends in the European pipe market will be tried. In the second part of the presentation an overview over the...

An Evaluation Method for Slow Crack Growth on PE Pipes for Gas Distribution

Author(s) : Nishimura, Kawaguchi 2004 Milan

The required performance of polyethylene pipes for gas distribution is firstly described. As an evaluation method for slow crack growth, the relation between crack growth length and time under test was obtained to investigate the stress crack resistance of polyethylene pipes for gas distribution after conducting...

Can ISO MRS and ASTM HDB Rated Materials be Harmonized

Author(s) : Zhou, Palermo 2004 Milan

ISO MRS and ASTM HDB rating systems have been successfully used for more than four decades in Europe and North America. MRS differentiates well the three generations of HDPE materials by classifying them as PE63, PE80 and PE100. However, HDB classifies all three generations of HDPE as only one PE 3408. When...

Characterisation of Rapid Crack Propagation of PE

Author(s) : C. Corleto 2004 Milan

A fracture mechanics based method to characterise rapid crack propagation properties of HDPE pipe resins has been developed. The new method is based on quasi-static finite element analysis solutions of energy release rate and displacement, of a modified single-endnotched bend specimen that minimizes dynamic effects...

Combined Loading of Buried Thermoplastics Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Janson, Alferink, Wolters 2004 Milan

This paper presents the results of work that was performed at the request of TEPPFA , The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association, on the issue of “Combined loading” (external and internal loading) of buried thermoplastics pressure pipes. The work is of great importance for users and designers of...

Consequences of annealing during long-term pressure tests on polyvinylidene fluoride pipes

Author(s) : S. Castagnet, D. Girard, J-L. Gacougnolle, G. Hochstetter, M. Werth 2004 Milan

The long-term behaviour of PVF2 in the slow crack growth (SCG) regime is usually predicted from burst tests. Lifetimes measured from such tests are quite long (several months at least) making accelerated tests interesting alternatives. Creep tests were performed on three-notched PVF2 samples; the morphology of the...

Correlating Aldyl A and Century PE Pipe Rate Process Method Projections With Actual Field Performance

Author(s) : Palermo 2004 Milan

The recent Department of Transportation Advisory Bulletin, “Notification of the Susceptibility to Premature Brittle-Like Cracking of Older Plastic Pipe” cited lower ductile inner wall Aldyl “A” and Century polyethylene (PE) pipe as two materials that were known to be susceptible to brittle-like cracking or...

Damage evolution and failure mechanisms in polyethylene

Author(s) : SKM Ting, JG Williams and A Ivankovic 2004 Milan

Recent experimental data (Ting et al (1-2) and Ting (3)) has shown that the onset and subsequent evolution of the damage (craze) was found to be sensitive to constraint effects, in addition to rates. In particular, the effect of notch depth was found to exert a greater influence on the material response than...

Design and Pressure Rating of PE Fittings, Stress Concentrations, Slow Crack Growth and the USE of ISO9080

Author(s) : Lever 2004 Milan

It has long been established that the primary long-term failure mode of PE fittings is Slow Crack Growth (SCG) from the area of highest stress concentration. This area of highest stress concentration is usually situated at the edge of the fusion joint, be it a conventional socket, sidewall or electrofusion joint....

Design of Cylindrical Plastics Pipe Linings to Resist Buckling due to Collapse Pressures

Author(s) : Boot 2004 Milan

Flexible (non-bonded) polymeric linings are used extensively to renovate both gravity and pressure pipes. Linings for both types of pipe are subject to collapse pressures, and in the case of gravity pipes this is the dominant source of loading; the efficient design of linings to sustain collapse pressures is...

Design of Profile Wall Thermoplastic Pipe for Compression

Author(s) : McGrath 2004 Milan

Gravity flow thermoplastic pipes use profile wall geometries to provide maximum wall stiffness with minimum wall area. This practice minimizes the material used in manufacture, and thus the product cost. In the case of some thermoplastic pipe, polyethylene in particular, this practice has led to a need for design...


Author(s) : N. Brown 2004 Milan

The three major requirements for a gas pipe resin are (1) the MRS , (2) excellent resistance to slow crack growth[SCG] and (3) resistance to brittle fast fracture as exhibited by a low S4 critical temperature,[Tc]. In order to develop a new PE resin, it is necessary to investigate many variables involving the...

Developments in North American PVC Piping Products for Trenchless Applications

Author(s) : Rahman 2004 Milan

This paper is a state-of-the-art review of a rapidly expanding market for the municipal Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) piping industry in the United States and Canada : Trenchless Technology. The reality of municipal underground piping construction and rehabilitation in North America has evolved into a combination...

Durability of Danish PE Gas Pipes

Author(s) : Espersen 2004 Milan

Over the last 20 years the Danish natural gas distribution network has been using 2nd generation PE materials classified as PE80. When introducing the PE materials (MDPE) right from the start of the Danish gas project expectations were that they would last for more than 50 years. The Danish standard for PE pipes...

EAS European Acceptance Scheme

Author(s) : Nury, Meijering 2004 Milan

After long time of preparation and co-normative research, the new European Acceptance Scheme for Drinking Water quality (EAS) is progressing now very strongly and will become in force as officially expected in 2006. So, besides the legally required CE marking showing the conformity to the Essential Requirements of...


Author(s) : Eva Nezbedová, Pavel Šindelář and Petr Bohatý 2004 Milan

Changing the catalyst composition, it allowed us to alter placement of comonomer from lower to higher polymer molecular weight fractions together with a certain reduction of molecular weight distribution (MWD). Using this catalyst several polymer samples differing in level of branching, in comonomer unit placement...

Electron Beaming of Large Diameter Thick-Walled PE Pipes

Author(s) : Below, Quilitz, Schumann 2004 Milan

The crosslinking of polyethylene by irradiation is a well known technology in the sanitary and heating pipe market. For more than 20 years PE-Xc-pipes in dimensions up to about 40 mm and wall thicknesses up to about 4 mm have been used successfully in this market. With the development of a new crosslinking...

Environment Factors in Performance Forecasting of Plastic Piping Materials

Author(s) : Chung, Couch, Kim, Vibien, Oliphant 2004 Milan

Environmental factors are known to significantly impact the oxidative failure mechanism of materials. For example, the chlorine present in potable water as a disinfectant is an oxidant that has been reported to impact the failure mechanism of materials in potable water applications. In this paper, the relationship...

Erosion Performance of Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Fairfield, Campbell, Reid 2004 Milan

This work examines the wear properties and erosion resistance of plastic pipes under dynamic fluid impact and cavitation conditions. Testing to evaluate the performance of a range of plastics was undertaken. A test rig was calibrated for : flow stability, pressure hysteresis, frictional head loss, time to...

Europe's largest-ever PE pipe project - The Montpellier Sea Outfall

Author(s) : Blomster, Baeckman, Ettinger 2004 Milan

Only ten years ago, steel was the dominant material in marine outfall projects. Technological advances in raw material supply, more sophisticated extrusion technology and know-how development in submerging of pipelines has however changed this situation. In 2002 Pipelife Norge A/S won Europe's largest-ever...

Evaluation of Stress Crack Resistance of Corrugated High Density PE Pipes

Author(s) : Hsuan, McGrath 2004 Milan

In past ten years, there is a significant growth in the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) corrugated pipes in transportation related applications in the United States. At the same time, the evaluation of stress crack resistance (SCR) of the HDPE corrugated pipes has also gone through many changes. A...


Author(s) : J. Vienne, Ph. Vanspeybroeck 2004 Milan

Since the official introduction of the S4 test in several ISO and CEN standards, different test institutes have achieved experience in the RCP behaviour of polyethylene gas and water pipes. In most cases the S4 test is limited for smaller pipes up to a diameter 250 mm. This paper resumes the results recently...

Examining the Behaviour of an Interactive Pipe Liner Under Conditions that May Occur

Author(s) : Crunkhorn, Whiter, Mulheron, Smith 2004 Milan

The water industry has used renovation techniques to extend the life of its assets for a number of years, beginning with sliplining in the 1970s. These techniques have evolved with time and the use of an interactive liner, where the liner withstands only some of the service loads, with the remainder borne by the...

Experience with a Close-Fit Pipeline Renovation System based on a PVC Alloy

Author(s) : Bos, Hussko 2004 Milan

The main requirements for successful pipeline renovation systems are to combine an easy and safe installation with a long lifetime and a good cost performance. This paper reviews the development and evaluation of the Omega-LinerT M relining system which is a close-fit system based on a PVC alloy. Practical...

Factors Affecting the Use of PE Pipeline Materials for Large Diameter Water Mains

Author(s) : Shepherd 2004 Milan

Polyethylene pipeline systems have now been used with considerable success by the UK Water Industry for over twenty years. Most, if not all, water companies now regard polyethylene as the default material choice for all normal distribution system applications. i.e. up to 300mm nominal diameter. However, for...

Failure Analysis of the Squeeze-Off of PE Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Yayla, Bilgin 2004 Milan

Squeeze-off is used in routine and emergency situations, to stop or nearly stop flow in polyethylene pipe by flattening the pipe between parallel bars. Gas and water industry utilizing polyethylene pipe in their systems have designed squeeze-off procedures to fit their pipe material environmental conditions and...

High Density PE Water Distribution Systems

Author(s) : Sandstrum 2004 Milan

The use of polyethylene pipe in potable water systems has grown considerably over the past thirty years on both a domestic (North America) and international (Global) basis. Factors driving this growth have included material improvements, standards development, expansion of innovative construction techniques and...

How will the Lifetime of Different Multi-Layer Pipes be Affected when Exposed to a Circulation Loop

Author(s) : Andersson 2004 Milan

The lifetime of plastic pipes has been studied at Bodycote Polymer AB for more than 30 years. This paper will compare two test methodologies for evaluating multi-layer pipes. An attempt will be made to investigate antioxidant consumption as a function of exposure time for three different PE based multi-layer pipes...

Hydraulically Actuated Fittings for Higher Pressure

Author(s) : Welburn 2004 Milan

It is generally considered that joints present the weakest element in any pipeline. In response to this the Redman hydraulic fitting has been developed to provide a unique and cost effective method of joining plastic pipe. No heat source or bolts are required to form the joint and installation can be completed...

Innovative PE Pipe Technologies

Author(s) : David Morgan 2004 Milan

The United Kingdom has one of the oldest and most developed gas transportation systems in the world. Today, its policy is to use polyethylene (PE) as the preferred material for the safe and efficient transportation of natural gas for operating pressures up to 7 Bar. Transco are the largest gas transporter in the UK...

Installation Guide of Plastic Pipe Systems for Hot and Cold Water

Author(s) : liguori, Nezzo 2004 Milan

Following a brief picture of the italian market situation and development of the main sectors of application, the paper gives a review of the main italian and international standards regarding this kind of product. The paper reports on the efforts of a working group, promoted by IIP, composed by representatives of...

Integration, Shut-Off and Repair Technology for PE Pipe Systems

Author(s) : Eckert 2004 Milan

„No welding if media escapes”, “residual water problems” and “need for space” are phrases invariably used when repairs and integration to PE pipe systems is the topic of conversation. Quite rightly so, because clean fusion zone surfaces are an important prerequisite for a strong, homogenous PE fusion...

Interpretation of the Results of the Full Notch Creep Test and a Comparison with the Notched Pipe Test

Author(s) : Beech, Clutton 2004 Milan

Design of pipe systems for lifetimes in excess of 100 years depends on accelerated testing of pipe at different temperatures, and standard extrapolation methods for assessment of the minimum required strength. However resistance to slow crack growth is an essential parameter to take into account for the development...

Italgas Experience on non destructive Evaluation of PE Pipe Welding

Author(s) : Ghia, Olivero, Piovano 2004 Milan

Nowadays the major determinants for the evaluation of polyethylene (PE) pipe welding are still visual examination of weld bead quality (for butt fusion) and destructive tests. Nevertheless during the last decade a great effort has been done in studying and attempting the development of suitable Non Destructive...

Laboratory Modelling of Plastic Landfill Leachate Drainage Pipes

Author(s) : Rogers, Vasilikos 2004 Milan

The structural performance of plastic pipelines used for landfill drainage is difficult to predict due to the complex stress transmission provided by the unusually inhomogeneous overburden (i.e. waste) and variable degrees of local confinement provided by the mounded gravel surrounds. Also the gravel-waste...


Author(s) : Shah Rahman 2004 Milan

The introduction of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) piping standards four decades ago on the North American continent has provided utilities and municipalities a solution to overcoming common problems inherent in traditional piping materials such as corrosion, pipe cracking, poor joint performance, and cost and difficulty...

Large Diameter Spirally Wound PP Sewerage Pipe Installation in Sicily

Author(s) : Barresi, Ek 2004 Milan

The underground installation in Canicattì Municipality in Sicily is a combined sewerage and rainwater system of a very specific design. The complete system is manufactured by Simplast using a new generation PP material and the Weholite spiral wound pipe solution licensed from KWH Pipe. The design meets the range...

Long Term Performance of Existing PVC Water Distribution Systems

Author(s) : Breen, Boersma, Slaats 2004 Milan

In co-operation with the PVC producers, pipe manufacturers and waterworks companies in the Netherlands, a study is carried out by the research institute TNO Industrial Technology on the current status of the existing PVC water distribution system and on the prediction of its residual lifetime. The prediction of the...

Low Cost Piping A Challenge for First and Third World

Author(s) : Spindler 2004 Milan

In this contribution we summarise investigations how the three sustainability areas ecology, economy and society can be converted one into the other, how they are correlated etc. Results are explained with the example of different pipe systems made from PVC and other materials. The most important economical...

Manufactured Aggregate as Imported Backfill Material for Plastics Pipes Newport, Wijeyesekara, Edwards)

Author(s) : 2004 Milan

Research work undertaken at the University of East London has produced new forms of sustainable manufactured aggregate, which gives a backfill material which has many advantages over natural materials. The unique geotechnical properties of the aggregate make it an idea material for the laying of plastic pipes...


Author(s) : Roy Brander 2004 Milan

The city of Calgary, Canada, is notable both for the depth of its commitment to PVC as a material for water & sewer mains, and the low failure rate it has experienced them. The break rate in the early 1990s, ~0.2 failures/year/100km, was roughly one-quarter of the average for 10 other Canadian cities1, and less...

Molecular Oriented PVC and PVC-U Pipes for Pressure Applications in the Water

Author(s) : Robeyns, Vanspeybroeck 2004 Milan

Lifetime prediction of plastics piping systems plays an important key role when selecting new materials for pressure pipes. Practical experience during more than 50 years, demonstrates that PVC piping systems do not vanish after the lifetime as mentioned in the relevant national and international standards. PVC...

New Approaches About Compliance of Materials in Contact with Water

Author(s) : Ottaviani, Sarti, Milana 2004 Milan

Materials and articles in contact with water for human consumption should not endanger human health and should not bring about organoleptie changes to the water. The compliance of the manufacts (pipes, joints, fittng, valve, filtus etc..) is under the responsibility of the industry which has to follow the...

New Design Guidelines for Fatigue Failure in PVC Pipe

Author(s) : Jeffrey, Moser, Folkman 2004 Milan

A research project sponsored by Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association dealing with the fatigue strength of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe was recently completed at Utah State University. The objective of the project was to develop an improved methodology for predicting fatigue failure of 6-inch (152 mm) PVC pipes. The tests...

New Possibilities for Silane PE-X Materials Using a Novel Crosslinking Catalyst System and Innovative PE Resins

Author(s) : Palmloef, Quaretta 2004 Milan

Silane crosslinking is one of the major methods used commercially today to bring about crosslinking of pipes. However, to achieve reasonable crosslinking rates it is necessary to add a catalyst masterbatch at extrusion. In addition some kind of post extrusion treatment at elevated temperature is necessary. Catalyst...


Author(s) : R. de Palo 2004 Milan

One of the most critical points in the design of a material with long term high burst pressure performance is to limit the so called "brittle failure", where slow crack growth propagation mode takes place. Since many years, polypropylene has been produced via cascade processes, where different PP based structures...

New Technical Guide - Using Plastics Pipes for Water Supply and Sewer Systems

Author(s) : Guldbaeck 2004 Milan

The Danish Plastics Industry, represented by Uponor A/S, KWH Pipe AS and Nordisk Wavin A/S, has cooperated with Erling Holm, consultant, and DANVA (Danish Water and Waste Water Association) in the drafting of the above new technical guide ("Brug af plastrør til vand- og afløbssystemer, vejledning nr. 54" (1))...

Newly Developed Sewer Pipe System With Improved Abrasion Performance and Safer Joints

Author(s) : Jungmann 2004 Milan

This case study follows the installation of a 300 to 800mm PVC sewer pipline system in a housing development. The system employs a novel design of PVC foam core pipes which have an integral, fixed elastomeric sealing ring in the joint as well as a specially thickened inner wall which gives improved abraision...

Nondestructive Testing of Fusion Joints of PE Piping by Real Time Ultrasonic Imaging

Author(s) : Shin, Jang, Kwon, Lee 2004 Milan

Thousands of kilometers of polyethylene (PE) pipes are newly installed every year. However, up to date, there are no reliable nondestructive testing methods to determine the quality of the joint of the PE piping system. In this paper, an innovative nondestructive testing (NDT) method for electrofusion (EF) joints...

Organoleptic Behaviour of Organic Materials in Contact

Author(s) : Veschetti, Cittadini, Maresca, Ottaviani 2004 Milan

Water distribution systems may be subjected to microbial contamination when new pipes are laid or repair work is done. Severe pollution of drinking water is also possible in plumbing systems during normal operating conditions as a consequence of unfortunate circumstances. In both cases, after removing the possible...

PE Pipes in Operation to Convey Potable Water

Author(s) : Pontiggia, Vidotto 2004 Milan

Istituto Italiano dei Plastici (I.I.P., Italian Institute of Plastic Materials) sponsored and supported a research work to investigate and define the remaining life time of PE pipes which were in operation for several years to convey potable water in municipal waterworks. Specifically the investigation has been...

PE, Reducing Risks in the Gas Industry by Replacing Ductile Iron Pressure Pipes

Author(s) : Muckle 2004 Milan

In 1999 the Health & Safety Executive agreed to the introduction of a new risk based methodology to be used for prioritising iron mains replacement. The introduction of this methodology combined with the results of major incident investigations has led the Health & Safety Executive to conclude that the potential...

PE-HD Pipe Systems: 15 Years of Successful Application in the Public Sewer Network of Goettingen

Author(s) : Fiedler, Ettinger 2004 Milan

The city of Göttingen is located in central Germany, directly on the highway connecting Hannover and Kassel. With its 130,000 inhabitants, Göttingen is one of the 60 largest cities in Germany. In 1988 Göttingen started to systematically investigate its 700 km long sewer network (350 km sewerage lines and 350 km...

PE-RT, a New Class of PE for Hot Water Pipes

Author(s) : Damen 2004 Milan

The development of a new family of PE materials with significantly improved processability and long term strength at high temperatures is discussed. These polymers form the basis for a new ISO class of polyethylene materials : PE-RT (Polyethylene of Raised Temperature resistance) for hot and cold water pipe...

Performance of Buried Large Diameter Structured Wall PE Pipes

Author(s) : Andtbacka, Bjorklund, Lofmark, Thorstensson 2004 Milan

The performance of buried large diameter structured wall PE pipes has been studied by following the development of the deflection in four different large diameter PE pipes installed in Finland and Sweden. The pipes studied have had an internal diameter of 2000-2400 mm and a ring stiffness of 4-8 kN/m2. Two of the...

PEX PE Coextruded Pipes for the Conveyance of Natural Gas

Author(s) : Genoni, Belforte 2004 Milan

One aspect of extrusion technology that could offer viable alternatives to solid PEX pipes in the gas distribution industry is the production of co-extruded pipes. The production of a PE pipe incorporating cross-linked layers in its wall may be an attractive method of transferring some of the properties of PEX to...

Pipe and Soil Mechanics for Buried Corrugated HDPE Pipe

Author(s) : Watkins 2004 Milan

HDPE pipes are being installed as buried conduits at an increasing rate. HDPE pipes are lightweight and resistant to corrosion and abrasion. Because HDPE pipes are flexible, the soil embedment is a major component of the conduit. To assure adequate pipe stiffness, corrugated and profile wall pipes are becoming...

Pipe-Laying Without Excavation and Buying Operations

Author(s) : Dall'Argine 2004 Milan

Among the filled pipe-laying methods, it’s interesting the one that permits, for certain soils characteristics and for little plastic pipes, to lay the pipe-lines without the excavation and burying operations. The “Consorzio di Bonifica della Piana di Terralba e Arborea” adopted this PVC...

Pipeline Rehabilitation with Expanded and Reoriented PVC

Author(s) : Woods, Marti, Ferry 2004 Milan

Open-cut installation of C900/C905 PVC for new potable water systems has been a proven methodology for many years. Creating PVC pipe with improved hydrostatic stress rating through expansion and orientation of the polymer (PVCO) is likewise established technology. Sliplining existing pipelines with butt-fused...

Polybutene-1 - Entering the Next Generation

Author(s) : Schemm, Van de Vliet, Koennecke, Grasmeder 2004 Milan

Polybutene-1 (PB-1) is a relatively unexplored polyolefin which shares many features in common with conventional polyolefins like polypropylene and polyethylene, while at the same time offering versatility, value and opportunity through a range of properties not usually associated with this type of resin. Pipes...

Polyolefin Pipes with Functional Layer(s) Extend the Competitive Edge of Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Laurent, Hugues 2004 Milan

The last years have seen the emergence of several multi-layer pipe structures based on polyolefin materials (PE 80 – PE 100 – PE-X – PP). The combination of a polyolefin with another functional layer in a multi-layer structure enables taking advantage of the properties of the different components. The...

Predicting the Residual Life of PVC Sewer Pipes

Author(s) : Whittle, Tennakoon 2004 Milan

Ipswich Water commenced reviewing the service lives of different pipe materials in its gravity sewer system. Unlike other pipe materials, PVC sewers did not have failure histories, or deterioration revealed in CCTV inspections, even after 25 years of service. Therefore establishing a realistic predicted life was...

Prediction of Ductile Failure in U-PVC Pipes from Creep Tests on Specimens

Author(s) : Castiglioni, Verzanini, Pavan 2004 Milan

The possibility of predicting the resistance to creep and ductile failure in pressurized pipes from tensile creep tests on specimens taken from the same pipes, is explored. Experimental results obtained by the two testing methods are compared and discussed.

Pressure Design of Steel Mesh Reinforced Plastics Pipes

Author(s) : Sun, He, Zhang 2004 Milan

Steel mesh reinforced plastic pipe is an innovative type of pressure pipe which is composed of plastics with a steel mesh encased. Due to the big differences in respective mechanical properties of the two materials, the stresses sustained by them also differ greatly when the pipe is subject to load. The methods...

PVC Pipes for Life - Modern Developments and Design Criteria

Author(s) : Osry) 2004 Milan

Pipe materials technology and market needs have combined to advance developments in material savings while enhancing pipe properties. Increasing PVC pipe material design stresses from 10 to 32 MPa and the corresponding reduction in wall thicknesses and safety factors is described and includes a consideration of the...


Author(s) : S. COOK, C. DAL POZZO 2004 Milan

In 1989 the English and Welsh water industry was privatised. A research program was conducted to develop new testing and quality procedures. So many pipes, taken from mains placed in service over time, were disinterred and tested. The failure causes were analysed mainly by application of “fracture mechanics”....

PVC-U Pipe Extrusion Machinery - Technological Solutions

Author(s) : Mickley 2004 Milan

Due to its excellent material characteristics and its outstanding price / performance ratio, until today PVC-U is the worldwide most used material for pipes made from plastics. As the market is very competitive manufacturers of PVC-U pipes have been exposed to increasing pressure on prices and costs for years. At...

Qualification of Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe and its Application in the Oil and Gas Industry

Author(s) : Dalmolen 2004 Milan

Plastic pips have entered many applications and have outperformed traditional materials in many respects. Until recently, the use of thermoplastic pipe has been limited to rather low pressures, up to about 10 or 16 Bars. Since the introduction of Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) this situation has drastically...

Quality Assessment of HDPE Pipes by Mechanical Testing

Author(s) : Castagnetti, Dragoni, Simonazzi 2004 Milan

The quality of HDPE pipes for water and gas conveyance is central to the performance of the installation and to the reputation of the plastic pipe industry. The paper aims at identifying a rapid test protocol that can discriminate between top quality and poor quality materials and can be used for conformity control...

Ranking of PE-HD Pipe Grades by Fatigue Crack Growth Performance

Author(s) : Pinter, Haager, Balika, Lang 2004 Milan

In this work fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments were used to evaluate the long term performance of polyethylene (PE) pipe grades. The FCG-tests were performed under a sinusoidal load at a frequency of 5 Hz, an R-ratio (Fmin/Fmax) of 0.1 and a test temperature of 23 °C. Eight different commercial pipe grades (PE...

Reduction of Production Costs and Improvement of Pipe Quality by Using Flex Ring Dies

Author(s) : Gross 2004 Milan

Conventional pipe dies normally have no means to get rid of unsymmetrical differences of the local melt stream around the circumference of the die. That is why, even after the die has been centered in an ideal way, all produced pipes have thickness tolerances over their circumference. The development of Flex Ring...

Rehabilitation of a steel main gas pipe by PE100 pipe for operation at 10 bar

Author(s) : Gustaaf SUYS, MA ZHOU, Dave CORDEROY 2004 Milan

A sector of the Beijing Natural Gas Company network was to be converted from town gas to natural gas. It was found that the existing steel pipeline installed in 1983 could not withstand the working pressure, as parts of the steel pipes were seriously corroded. The system consisted of about 2.7 and 0.2 km of...

Rehabilitation of District Heating Networks

Author(s) : Caswell 2004 Milan

District heating and combined heat and power systems are becoming an attractive way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This has resulted in renewed interest in such systems used to provide electricity and heat to cities, and Universities, for example. There are many district heating systems in the United...

Relining of a large Diameter Water Main in Kolkata Using Solid Wall PE Pipes

Author(s) : Bjorklund, Leowpenwong 2004 Milan

An old 1550 mm diameter heavily corroded water pipe, was in March 2003 relined in Kolkata, India by using 1400 mm SDR 30 PE pipework. In all, 1 km of pipe was rehabilitated. To facilitate the installation of the PE pipe and maximize the insertion lengths, extensive planning for a slip-lining operation was carried...

Residual Lifespan of High Density PE Pipes Used in Pipe Replacing Operations

Author(s) : Carlo 2004 Milan

Use of relining technologies in Italy grew steadily in the second half of the ’90s. Initially commissioned by gas and drinking water distribution companies, work of this type was later extended to the big oil, petrochemical and pharmaceutical companies. The No-Dig technologies most commonly used today are those...

Resistance of PVC-U and PVC-M to Cyclic Fatigue

Author(s) : Whittle, Teo 2004 Milan

PVC-U and PVC-M pipes may be used in applications where they are subjected to cyclic pressures generated by the operation of pumps and valves. It is therefore important that the pipe material’s response to cyclic loading is quantified and that pipelines are designed and operated within the material’s...

Rock Impingement of PE Piping Systems

Author(s) : Gueugnaut, Berthier, Darut, Constantinescu 2004 Milan

It is well known today that rock impingement is one of the major cause of long term failure of PE pipes when in the ground. This phenomenon which results of an intermittent or permanent contact of a hard object – most often not directly injurious – with the PE pipe can lead to premature brittle failure within...


Author(s) : Patrick Leevers 2004 Milan

International Standard ISO 13477 defines the ‘S4’ RCP test itself, and specifies two procedures which use it. The first procedure, already well embedded in referring standards, evaluates a critical pressure at constant temperature (usually 0°C) below which RCP arrests. The second procedure evaluates, at...

Setting the Value of the Design Coefficient for A 0.3MPa Gas Supply Use PE Piping System in Japan

Author(s) : Akiyama, Kuriyama 2004 Milan

The technical study group established by the Japan Gas Association examined the general design coefficient factor (C) to use polyethylene pipe to transport gas in Japan up to 0.3MPa. Because there are no results of the use of polyethylene pipe for gas in this high pressure range in Japan, we conducted a study...

Solving the Creeping Problem Mechanical Tapping Saddles Have on PE Pipes

Author(s) : Monsen 2004 Milan

My paper today is based on the Isiflo Tapping Saddle, a new and uniquely patented system for mechanical tapping on plastic pipes, which has been especially designed to solve creeping problems. To solve this problem the two main functions of a mechanical tapping saddle have been separated. Positioning/securing the...

Stabilisers for PVC Systems

Author(s) : Schiller, Fischer 2004 Milan

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is one of the most fascinating, interesting, universal and oldest thermoplastics oft all. On one hand it is the polymer which comes into contact with a baby’s skin only a few minutes after its birth, in many contries the bracelet on which the name and the birthday of the newborn are...

Structural Design of PP Stormwater Chambers Using Plastic Pipe Analysis

Author(s) : Beaver, McGrath, Scharff 2004 Milan

Plastic pipe has been used for many years in applications to control surface water runoff by detention, retention, and infiltration. Review of deficiencies with available pipe geometries resulted in creation of a new ‘pipe’ product, termed chambers. Stormwater chambers are arch-shaped, open bottom,...

Structural HD-PE Pipes - The Basis for Prefabricated Buildings and Their Special Opportunities by Collecting Potable Water in Mountainous Area

Author(s) : Wittner 2004 Milan

In sparsely populated areas a central drinking water supply is not economical. This describes exactly the situation in the mountains. Here, existing sources can be used to supply the people who live in this area. A supply system consist out of pressure pipes, several shafts and storage tanks. The complete system...

Sustainable Investment in the Plastics Pipes Industry

Author(s) : Catanzano 2004 Milan

The key reason for investment in technology should be obvious – it is for business growth. The main volume products - PE and PVC are at a similar stage in the business cycle, where formerly rapid growth has decelerated and is in the doldrums with declining prices – the classic signs of a mature market....

Technical Review of Rilsan Polyamide-11 High Pressure Natural Gas Pipe Field Installations, Coiling Studies, and Pipe Durability Testing

Author(s) : James Mason, John Chen and Gregory O’Brien 2004 Milan

This paper presents an overview of the first high pressure polyamide-11 (PA-11) natural gas plastic pipe field installations with operating pressures of 150 to 200 psi. We describe the layout and operating pressures, the local soil and environment conditions, as well as the installation methods employed to complete...

The Above Ground Design of Plastic Pipe Systems for Process Fluids

Author(s) : MacKellar, Headford, Ingham 2004 Milan

This paper provides an overview of the basic properties of plastic pipes, in the range 50mm to 400mm, and how these should be used in the design of above ground process pipe systems made of PE and PVC. It covers the basic properties of plastics, examples of the determination of load cases and describes the basic...

The Durability of a Low-Pressure Gas Distribution System of Ductile PVC

Author(s) : Meijering, Wolters, Hermkens 2004 Milan

One of the options for a low-pressure gas distribution system is the use of ductile PVC pipes and joints. The long-term performance of ductile PVC pipes has been reported in a number of previous studies. In this paper the long-term performance of the socket joints, in which elastomeric (NBR) sealing rings are used,...

The Influence from the Pipe Surface, Weld Beads and Protective Skins on Long Term Failure Times for PE Butt Fusion Joints

Author(s) : Bergstroem, Nilsson, Lindqvist 2004 Milan

When making creep tensile tests on butt fusion joints in PE pipes almost all failures emerge from the outside of the pipe. Results indicate an influence from the outside surface on the long term behaviour of butt fusion joints. It is a well established practice to scrape the outside surface of PE pipes when making...

Thin-Walled PE Rehabilitation of PE Pressure Pipelines Using Trenchless Techniques

Author(s) : De Rosa, Spence 2004 Milan

The cost benefits of thin walled MDPE pipe systems for the rehabilitation of gas and water mains are significant. However, the key short-term factor in making decisions about rehabilitation and replacement choices is often the initial cost of the work, rather than the total cost of ownership. The various...

Use of HDPE Pipe for Municipal and Industrial Projects in N. America

Author(s) : Rubeiz 2004 Milan

High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) piping systems have been available since 1948. In 1955, ASTM established the Plastics Pipe Committee. In 1978, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) approved HDPE for water tubes that were up to 75mm (3”) in diameter. In 1990, AWWA developed the first edition of the AWWA...

User-friendly Installation of a Crosslinkable PE for Hot Pressurized Water

Author(s) : Rugraff 2004 Milan

To heat buildings and houses, a common source of heat with a large ‘district heating’ distribution system is used more and more. This system is both economic and ecological as it avoids the generation of heat by thousands of private heating systems. Such networks are currently made mainly with steel coated with...

Welding of Large Diameter Heavy Wall Polyolefine Pipes and Long Term Performance

Author(s) : Hessel, Lueghamer, Tsunaga 2004 Milan

Case histories of large diameter heavy wall polyolefine pipe installations for water supply in Japan are presented. The different methods for heated butt welding procedures for polyethylene are compared. The test methods to assess the performance of the welds are described and the failure mechanisms are...

70 Years of Experience with PVC Pipes

Author(s) : Huelsmann, Nowack 2004 Milan

An Innovative Technology to Make Structured PVC Pipes For Sewers Large Diameter with Possible

Author(s) : Nesti 2004 Milan

Filled or foamed PVC Pipes - Which solution achieves highest benefit

Author(s) : Dowbrowsky 2004 Milan


Author(s) : U. Schulte 2004 Milan

Innovative PVC Pipe Systems for Increased Safety and Improved Economics

Author(s) : S.R.Tan, and A. Bos 2004 Milan

Leiduin to Haarlem - Water Transport Pipeline Rehabilitation

Author(s) : Jutte 2004 Milan

Liberalisation of Local Public Companies and its Effects on the Industrial and Technical Content of Water

Author(s) : Lolli, Drusian 2004 Milan


Author(s) : Alessandro Soresina, David Walton 2004 Milan

New polymerization technologies for plastic pipes

Author(s) : De Vries 2004 Milan

PE - A Proven Material in the Practical Application

Author(s) : Allmann 2004 Milan

QuickSwitch - Continuous Dimensions Change in Pipe Extrusion

Author(s) : Tuerk, Stieglitz 2004 Milan

Recent Developments in PVC-C Compound Technology

Author(s) : Schroeder, Julius, Forsyth 2004 Milan

Representation of Stakeholder and Sustainable Development Interests

Author(s) : Cook 2004 Milan

Strength Investigation of Large Diameter PE 100 Low Sag Pipe

Author(s) : Janson, Bergstroem, Baeckman, Blomster 2004 Milan


Author(s) : Maurizio Di Trapani, Flavia Marino 2004 Milan

The TEPPEA Voluntary Commitment for Recycling and Lead Replacement

Author(s) : van't Veer 2004 Milan

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