Our site uses cookies necessary for its proper functioning. To improve your experience, other cookies may be used: you can choose to disable them. This can be changed at any time via the Cookies link at the bottom of the page.


The remaining quality of the PVC gas grid - Results of 10 years of on-going research

 

Papers # 2016 Berlin

To prevent an enormous surge in the replacement costs of the Dutch PVC gas distribution grid a so-called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004. This programme determines the actual quality of old excavated PVC-U and PVC-Hi pipes using a tensile-impact test at temperatures varying from -25°C to +47,5°C, whereby the brittle-ductile-transition-temperature is determined. With this research the average remaining quality of the Dutch PVC grid is determined. Also prioritizing pipe replacement becomes possible by distinguishing between pipe populations based on PVC-U types, diameter or installation year. 

This decade most of the PVC-U pipes used for the distribution of natural gas in the Netherlands will reach their initially specified lifespan of 50 years. To prevent an enormous surge in the replacement costs of these pipes, it is of increasing importance to determine the remaining material quality. Therefore a so-called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004.

Field failure studies have shown that the lack of ductile behaviour during excavation damage is the most important reason for incidents involving PVC in the Netherlands. Therefore in this programme the quality of old excavated PVC-U and PVC-Hi pipes is determined using a tensile-impact test at temperatures varying from - 25°C to +47,5°C, whereby the brittle-ductile-transition-temperature (TBD) is determined. 

With this research programme the average remaining quality of the Dutch PVC grid is determined. In this paper the relation between the diameter and the material properties are shown. Also the difference in the production quality of two PVC-U types in the early sixties of the last century is made visible. This knowledge gives the Dutch grid operators an opportunity to prioritize the replacement of old PVC-U pipes based on material quality instead of service time only.

Finally it is shown that through the years there has been a major improvement in the impact resistance of PVC. Well known of course are the improvements from PVC-U to PVC-Hi and latest PVC-O. However this research also shows that within PVC-U itself the material quality has made a large improvement over the years, due to improvements in the production process of PVC-U.

Related keywords : Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Brittle-ductile-transition-temperature (T BD ), Remaining Quality Gas Grid, Prioritizing Replacement, Tensile-impact Test, gas pipe, gas supply.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only


Related papers

2021 Amsterdam : A COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF PVC PIPES RECYCLING

Author(s) : A. Marangoni

The quality of infrastructures is a key driver for maximizing the performance of the utilities networks and minimizing the environmental impacts associated with their operation. The water and sewer pipes are key network elements to guarantee a satisfactory service to the citizens. Their end-of-life management is an...

2021 Amsterdam : A METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE CHARPY IMPACT STRENGTH OF NOTHCED SPECIMEN CUT FROM PLASTICS PIPES

Author(s) : Li, Yanjun, Xiang, Aimin, Xu, HaiyunBeijing, Xie, Jianling, Ho, Kinman, Xu, HaiyunBeijing

It is necessary to evaluate the impact resistance of plastics pipes as they have the potential to be damaged by hitting or colliding during storage, transportation and installation. As a well-established test method, the Charpy impact strength of unnotched test pieces cut from thermoplastics pipes is determined...

2021 Amsterdam : A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : A. Taraiya, P. Degenhart, M. Soliman, M. Boerakker, R. Handstanger, R. Kleppinger

Since the introduction of polyolefins for pressure pipes, continuous improvements have been made to meet ever-higher demands on their performance and to expand their application window beyond their original scope, mostly based on new resin formulations. Today, we also continue to push the limit to provide better...

2021 Amsterdam : A TRADE ASSOCIATION EXPLORED

Author(s) : Drew Mueller, Peter Dyke

HDPE Pipe holds a dominant position in several markets in North America: natural gas distribution, oil patch, mining, landfill and geothermal. So why are polyethylene’s municipal water and wastewater market shares so much lower than these other industries? How has the polyethylene industry been successful in growing...

2021 Amsterdam : AN EVIDENTIAL APPROACH TO USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE FOR HYDROGEN FUEL GASES

Author(s) : Derek Muckle

A technical program has been undertaken to provide evidence on the suitability of polyethylene pipe and fitting systems for the distribution of hydrogen fuel gas. The underlying principle has been to evaluate material in the form of a pipe and to consider the performance of the pipe and of the welded jointing systems...

2021 Amsterdam : ANALYSIS OF PVC AND CPVC BLENDS

Author(s) : Saleem Shakir

Unplasticized formulations based on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) resins offer technical solution to pressure piping systems that find extensive use in residential and industrial applications. Building upon the desirable properties of the vinyl monomer, the chlorine content of...

2021 Amsterdam : APPLICATION OF PP-R COMPOSITE REINFORCED PIPES IN HOT AND COLD WATER SYSTEMS

Author(s) : Lei Wang, Guozhi Xu, Qiaoping Qiu, Weihua Lu, Yanwang Han

PP-R (random copolymerized polypropylene) has been widely used in hot and cold water systems. However, the standard PP-R pipes have the disadvantages of a large high-temperature thermal expansion coefficient, an insufficient notched impact strength, and a low temperature and pressure resistance. In this paper, a new...

2021 Amsterdam : CHALLENGING THE 10% WALL THICKNESS RULE FOR HDPE MARINE PIPELINES

Author(s) : Ilija Radeljic, Ebbe Smith

HDPE pipe can be relatively easily scratched during the manipulation on the site, which is especially true for the marine pipelines. Installing the scratched marine pipe with the S bend method presents a risk and repair methods are usually performed. Currently, there is no standard defining the repair procedure, in...

2021 Amsterdam : EFFECT OF CHLORINATED WATER ON THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE COMPOUNDS WITH RECYCLATE CONTENT FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Paul J. Freudenthaler, Joerg Fischer, Mathias Eder, Reinhold W. Lang

For controlled water disinfection, typically chlorine is used and preliminary studies demonstrate its aging and crack growth acceleration effects on polyolefin pipe materials [1, 2]. Although the use of recycled plastics is not prohibited in some ISO standards for polyolefin piping systems [3–5], only small amounts...

2021 Amsterdam : EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS ON THE LONG-TERM CREEP RUPTURE PROPERTIES OF PRESSURE PIPE GRADE UNPLASTICIZED POLYAMIDE-12

Author(s) : James F. Mason, Akshay Ponda, Hermann van Laak, Buc Slay

The effects of liquid hydrocarbons on long term strength of pipe grade thermoplastic resins is an important consideration when designing pressure pipe for use in the oil and gas industry. There is an extensive body of work going back several decades descri bing these effects for pipe grade polyethylenes, and all...

2021 Amsterdam : FINDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS AND THE TENSILE IMPACT TEST ON PVC PIPES

Author(s) : Sjoerd Jansma, René Hermkens

More than 20,000 km of rigid PVC (or PVC-U) pipes are currently in use for the distribution of natural gas in the Netherlands. In this decade, the majority of these pipes will reach their initially specified lifespan of 50 years. In the light of a possible replacement surge, it is increasingly important to identify...

2021 Amsterdam : FINDING THE RIGHT PIPE TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE WITH RAISED RESISTANCE TO SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok

For PE 100-RC, two tests are still under development for pipes: the point load test (PLT) and the accelerated notch pipe test (aNPT). The PLT was developed by a project group consisting of manufacturers and end users. The PLT determines the resistance to point loads as they can occur in practice. An earlier study...

2021 Amsterdam : FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) USED TO SIMULATE THE STRESS/STRAIN OF THE POINT LOAD TEST (PLT) IN A BROADER STUDY TO SUPPORT THE FUTURE ISO TEST STANDARD

Author(s) : S. Nestelberger, J. Cheng

The Point Load Test (PLT) [‎ 1, ‎ 2] was designed to simulate the SCG (slow crack growth) failure initiated by a rock pressing into the exterior wall of a polymer pipe. Today’s PE materials sustain long PLT testing times, due to its high SCG resistance design. Consequently, an accelerated “PLT+” with the support of...

2021 Amsterdam : FIRST USE OF PE100-HT CONDUITS FOR ADVANCING THE CONTAINMENT OF UNDERGROUND HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES

Author(s) : Dr. Holger Brüning, Serge Hascoët, Yann Delanne, Didier Nozahic, Jawdat Mansour, José Santana

RTE operates, maintains and develops the French electricity network, including the High and very High Voltage cable lines. Their network is the largest in Europe and includes over 6400 km of underground HV links operated in 2018. The company is modernizing and developing its network by investing 1.5 billion euros per...

2021 Amsterdam : FLOWABLE FILL FOR PLASTIC PIPE

Author(s) : Amster Howard

Flowable fill is used for many applications, but mainly for pipe trench embedment and backfill. There are three ways that using flowable fill can be kind to the environment. Because flowable fill is self-leveling and has a strength greater than the native soil, the trench cross section can be minimized. This means...

2021 Amsterdam : FRACTURE MECHANICS TECHNIQUES IN LARGE DIAMETER PVC PIPES

Author(s) : Antonio Rodolfo Jr., Vanderley M. John

Unplasticised (U-PVC) and modified (M-PVC) pipes used in irrigation and infrastructure applications, outside diameter 326 mm, were evaluated according to various fracture mechanics methodologies, including fracture toughness (stress intensity factor KC and energy release rate GC, both at fracture), essential work of...

2021 Amsterdam : FROM MULTILAYER LAMINATES TO INDUSTRIAL PIPE APPLICATIONS – A GUIDELINE

Author(s) : Gerald Pinter, Johannes Wiener, Florian Arbeiter, Abhishek Tiwari, Otmar Kolednik

For pipe applications, catastrophic failure due to crack growth has to be prevented by all means. Techniques to develop new and even tougher pipe materials are explored in this contribution. The aim is to create a multi-layer architecture, that exhibits high toughness as well as damage tolerance towards sharp notches....

2021 Amsterdam : GROWTH IN THE USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN MEA FOR NATURAL GAS UTILITY DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Sultan Alkendi, Mohamed Jaber, Ahmed Atef Helal

The current push to reduce governmental energy subsidies has moved the need to adapt utility gas distribution networks toward the top of Middle Eastern governmental near-term agendas. Egypt is at the forefront of this push towards gasification. The United Arab Emirates has started on the path towards gasification...

2021 Amsterdam : HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN POLYMER PIPES FOR NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION – TEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Author(s) : Stephan Kneck, Henrik Iskov

It has become ever clearer that the resources of natural gas are an energy source, which will be less important in the future due to limitations in use of natural reserves. In order to prepare for the future the gas industry is looking at the alternative fuel gases, one such fuel gas is hydrogen. In order to prepare...

2021 Amsterdam : INNOVATIVE MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MEASURING THE PIPE WALL THICKNESS EARLY IN THE EXTRUSION PROCESS

Author(s) : Christian Schalich

Plastic pipes for infrastructure and building applications are precisely specified with regards to wall thickness and diameter. Pipe manufacturers use different measuring methods in order to ensure the required dimensional accuracy and maintain a constant high quality. This paper introduces a measuring system based on...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
Webinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless TechnologyWebinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless Technology

On march 10th, was held the PE 100+ ASSOCIATION first webinar. The webinar was a great success and attracted a large audience. 

TOP