Our site uses cookies necessary for its proper functioning. To improve your experience, other cookies may be used: you can choose to disable them. This can be changed at any time via the Cookies link at the bottom of the page.


Expanding the application range of high density polyethylene for use as an inner-liner material in reinforced thermoplastic pipe and steel pipe

 

Johannes de Bruin, Dr. Bert Dalmolen, Albo van Hateren

Papers # 2016 Berlin

Normal High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as the fluid contacting element, or the “inner-liner”, in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTP) and steel pipes up to 65 ºC. Through a modification of the HDPE polymer matrix, by adding nanoparticles, the E-modulus can be increased. Research shows that Nano-filled HDPE liners can, as a result, be used in RTP and steel pipe up to 85 ºC, a temperature which could previously only be reached by using rather expensive polyamide 11 and polyamide 12 compounds.

Normal High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is nowadays extensively used as a corrosion resistant liner material in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTP) and in Carbon Steel Pipes for temperatures up to 65 ºC. Rather than strength, the retention of a certain stiffness (E-modulus) is the design criterion governing the high temperature limitation for plastics as a liner material. Through a modification of the HDPE polymer matrix by adding nano-particles the E-modulus can be increased. 

Hydrocarbon fluids tend to absorb in the HDPE matrix, acting as a plasticizer and lowering the E-modulus. Fluid absorption strongly increases with temperature, and also depends on the composition of the fluid. In general, low molecular weight fluids show higher absorption, and aromatic hydrocarbons show more affinity to HDPE than other olefins. The affinity of hydrocarbons towards HDPE can be expressed as the “Hildebrand solubility parameter”. When this parameter closely matches the Hildebrand parameter of the matrix, hydrocarbon absorption, plasticization, and fluid permeation are at maximum. The Hildebrand solubility parameter can be calculated by the arithmetic average of the Hildebrand parameters of the fluid components. When the composition is known, an accurate estimate of the swelling, lowering of the E-modulus, and the level of fluid permeation can be made.

Tests, to assess the modulus retention at high temperature, were conducted with a worst case hydrocarbon fluid composition (based on the Hildebrand solubility parameter): a synthetic gas condensate consisting of 50 % (m/m) of trimethylbenzene and 50 % (m/m) n-decane. HDPE, PE100 was used as a reference material, which has a modulus of around 300 MPa at 65ºC when saturated with the test fluid. The HDPE based nano-particles filled compound showed a similar modulus as PE100 at a 20 ºC higher temperature. 

Results of permeation experiments and slow crack growth tests, support the assumption that HPDE based compound filled with nanoparticles can be used for liner materials in RTP and steel pipe up to 85ºC, a temperature which could previously only be reached by using more expensive polyamide 11 and polyamide 12 compounds. 

Related keywords : High density polyethylene (HDPE), Nano-filled polyethylene, Polyethylene liner, Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP).
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only


Related papers

2021 Amsterdam : A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : A. Taraiya, P. Degenhart, M. Soliman, M. Boerakker, R. Handstanger, R. Kleppinger

Since the introduction of polyolefins for pressure pipes, continuous improvements have been made to meet ever-higher demands on their performance and to expand their application window beyond their original scope, mostly based on new resin formulations. Today, we also continue to push the limit to provide better...

2021 Amsterdam : A TRADE ASSOCIATION EXPLORED

Author(s) : Drew Mueller, Peter Dyke

HDPE Pipe holds a dominant position in several markets in North America: natural gas distribution, oil patch, mining, landfill and geothermal. So why are polyethylene’s municipal water and wastewater market shares so much lower than these other industries? How has the polyethylene industry been successful in growing...

2021 Amsterdam : AN EVIDENTIAL APPROACH TO USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE FOR HYDROGEN FUEL GASES

Author(s) : Derek Muckle

A technical program has been undertaken to provide evidence on the suitability of polyethylene pipe and fitting systems for the distribution of hydrogen fuel gas. The underlying principle has been to evaluate material in the form of a pipe and to consider the performance of the pipe and of the welded jointing systems...

2021 Amsterdam : APPLICATION OF PP-R COMPOSITE REINFORCED PIPES IN HOT AND COLD WATER SYSTEMS

Author(s) : Lei Wang, Guozhi Xu, Qiaoping Qiu, Weihua Lu, Yanwang Han

PP-R (random copolymerized polypropylene) has been widely used in hot and cold water systems. However, the standard PP-R pipes have the disadvantages of a large high-temperature thermal expansion coefficient, an insufficient notched impact strength, and a low temperature and pressure resistance. In this paper, a new...

2021 Amsterdam : APPLICATIONS OF HDPE PIPING TO SUPPLY WATER TO RURAL VILLAGES IN MOROCCO

Author(s) : Donald Swen, Leanne Pichay, Nicholas Vallin, Alice Wu, Jim Johnston

In the rural commune of Ait Bayoud, Morocco, two of the most remote villages in the area, Ilguiloda and Izgouaren, live with water scarcity. To meet their water needs, women and children walk several kilometers to the nearest spring each day, often multiple times a day. Consequently, children cannot attend school...

2021 Amsterdam : CHALLENGING THE 10% WALL THICKNESS RULE FOR HDPE MARINE PIPELINES

Author(s) : Ilija Radeljic, Ebbe Smith

HDPE pipe can be relatively easily scratched during the manipulation on the site, which is especially true for the marine pipelines. Installing the scratched marine pipe with the S bend method presents a risk and repair methods are usually performed. Currently, there is no standard defining the repair procedure, in...

2021 Amsterdam : CHEAPER AND BETTER NETWORKS REALISED WITH PRACTICAL DESIGN SOFTWARE

Author(s) : Andreas Moerman, Flip van der Valk, Mirjam Blokker KWR, Tjakko Haaijer, Jan Vreeburg,

Drinking water companies with ageing networks are facing vast amounts of drinking water network reconstructions during the coming decades. This development coincides with the energy transition, which puts pressure on the available space underground. These external drivers give drinking water companies an opportunity...

2021 Amsterdam : CONFIRMATION OF LONG SERVICE LIVES OF PE-PIPES UNDER HIGHER TEMPERATURES APPLYING CONVENTIONAL OVEN TESTS AND MODERN HIGH-PRESSURE AUTOCLAVE TESTS

Author(s) : Anja Armani, Helmut Zanzinger

PE-pipes are used in applications at temperatures higher than 40°C and long service lives like drainage pipes in landfill basal lining systems, drainage pipes in tunnels with high cover heights, geothermal applications, power plant technology, mining, underground cable protection pipes for power lines for...

2021 Amsterdam : DESIGN BUILD OF A 54” REDUNDANT FORCE MAIN UTILIZING HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

Author(s) : Bruce Mowry, PhD, P.E., Brian Dorwart, P.G., P.E., David Mancini, Bryan Fletcher, Roger Williams, P.E., Rene Brito, EIT, Arnelio Alfonso, P.E .

The City of Miami Beach owns and operates a 54-inch sanitary sewage PCCP force main (FM) that was built in 1977. This FM is the only transmission pipeline for conveying about 22 million gallons per day (MGD) of raw sewage to the wastewater treatment plant. In 2012, the City identified structural deficiencies in the...

2021 Amsterdam : DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MONITORING SYSTEM FOR HDPE WATER PIPELINES CROSSING AN EARTHQUAKE FAULT

Author(s) : Peter Hubbard, Linqing Luo, Andrew Yeskoo, Kenichi Soga, Krista (Moita) Araica, Gus Cicala, Marshall McLeod

Seismically active faults pose a risk to buried water pipelines that can be complicated to quantify. Fault type, slip rate, pipeline geometry, and soil conditions all factor into a complex soil-pipeline interaction. For critical pipelines that cross faults, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has become an attractive...

2021 Amsterdam : DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID AND INNOVATIVE IN-FACTORY PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THE PERFORMANCES OF PE PIPES CONTAINING VARIOUS PROPORTIONS OF RECYCLED POLYMER MATERIAL

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Pascal AUSSANT, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Myriam BECHROURI

Concerns regarding the environment and sustainable development have revived interest in the reprocessing and re-use of polymer materials from manufactured objects that have reached the end of their operating life. Within this framework, formal professional agreements have been put in place at global level under the...

2021 Amsterdam : DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH AMERICAN CONDUIT PRACTICES

Author(s) : Tom Stewart, Richard Hicks, Patrick Vibien, Lance MacNevin

Arguably, broadband technologies have become as vital to society as water delivery, waste removal and energy distribution. However, the role of plastic conduit in broadband is often overlooked within the piping industry and society in general. HDPE conduit is an essential component to the build -out of 5G cell...

2021 Amsterdam : DRAINAGE HANDBOOK STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR CORRUGATED POLYOLEFIN PIPE

Author(s) : Joe Babcanec, P.E., Dan Currence, P.E.

The newly released Drainage Handbook provides complete guidance on corrugated polyolefin pipe. Perhaps the biggest contribution this new handbook makes to the advancement of both HDPE and PP corrugated plastic pipe is the design procedure presented. The design procedure reflects the industry’s recommended practice for...

2021 Amsterdam : EFFECT OF CHLORINATED WATER ON THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE COMPOUNDS WITH RECYCLATE CONTENT FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Paul J. Freudenthaler, Joerg Fischer, Mathias Eder, Reinhold W. Lang

For controlled water disinfection, typically chlorine is used and preliminary studies demonstrate its aging and crack growth acceleration effects on polyolefin pipe materials [1, 2]. Although the use of recycled plastics is not prohibited in some ISO standards for polyolefin piping systems [3–5], only small amounts...

2021 Amsterdam : EFFECT OF INSUFFICIENT HOMOGENIZATION DURING THE EXTRUSION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES ON BUTT FUSION JOINT INTEGRITY

Author(s) : Mike Troughton, Amir Khamsehnezhad, Changyi Yu

When butt fusion welding polyethylene (PE) pipes in the field, it is often specified that the pipes must undergo fusibility testing in all combinations of suppliers, diameters and thicknesses before being fused in production. This is a very onerous and expensive task, but must be carried out to ensure that the PE...

2021 Amsterdam : EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND LONG- TERM DURABILITY OF AGED POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Shuhei Nishida, Shintaro Iwasaki, Hidefumi Yamanaka, Takahiro Kasatani

Polyethylene pipelines have been used for natural gas service applications for over 40 years in Japan. It is thought that they will continue to be used widely for many years. Therefore, it is important to confirm the conditions of the existing pipelines being used for the long term. In this study, polyethylene pipes...

2021 Amsterdam : EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS ON THE LONG-TERM CREEP RUPTURE PROPERTIES OF PRESSURE PIPE GRADE UNPLASTICIZED POLYAMIDE-12

Author(s) : James F. Mason, Akshay Ponda, Hermann van Laak, Buc Slay

The effects of liquid hydrocarbons on long term strength of pipe grade thermoplastic resins is an important consideration when designing pressure pipe for use in the oil and gas industry. There is an extensive body of work going back several decades descri bing these effects for pipe grade polyethylenes, and all...

2021 Amsterdam : FINDING THE RIGHT PIPE TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE WITH RAISED RESISTANCE TO SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok

For PE 100-RC, two tests are still under development for pipes: the point load test (PLT) and the accelerated notch pipe test (aNPT). The PLT was developed by a project group consisting of manufacturers and end users. The PLT determines the resistance to point loads as they can occur in practice. An earlier study...

2021 Amsterdam : FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) USED TO SIMULATE THE STRESS/STRAIN OF THE POINT LOAD TEST (PLT) IN A BROADER STUDY TO SUPPORT THE FUTURE ISO TEST STANDARD

Author(s) : S. Nestelberger, J. Cheng

The Point Load Test (PLT) [‎ 1, ‎ 2] was designed to simulate the SCG (slow crack growth) failure initiated by a rock pressing into the exterior wall of a polymer pipe. Today’s PE materials sustain long PLT testing times, due to its high SCG resistance design. Consequently, an accelerated “PLT+” with the support of...

2021 Amsterdam : FIRST USE OF PE100-HT CONDUITS FOR ADVANCING THE CONTAINMENT OF UNDERGROUND HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES

Author(s) : Dr. Holger Brüning, Serge Hascoët, Yann Delanne, Didier Nozahic, Jawdat Mansour, José Santana

RTE operates, maintains and develops the French electricity network, including the High and very High Voltage cable lines. Their network is the largest in Europe and includes over 6400 km of underground HV links operated in 2018. The company is modernizing and developing its network by investing 1.5 billion euros per...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
TOP