Modern PE pipe enables the transport of hydrogen

Papers # 2018 Las-Vegas

To investigate the suitability of PE pipes for the transport of hydrogen on a specific industrial site, three topics were investigated. These topics are: the chemical resistance of PE to hydrogen, the permeation rate of hydrogen through PE and the electrofusion of PE pipes exposed to hydrogen. It can be concluded that the tested PE100-RC pipes on the premises of Groningen Seaport are suitable for the transport of hydrogen at pressures of up to 2 bar. However, during design and maintenance, the specific characteristics of hydrogen that distinguish it from methane need to be taken into account.

At Groningen Seaports, hydrogen gas is produced as a by-product on a local chemical site. To encourage reuse of this kind of energy-rich waste, the hydrogen is used as a fuel for scheduled buses in the northern part of the Netherlands (Groningen).

A special pipeline is installed to transport the hydrogen from the production facility to the filling station where the buses are fueled with the hydrogen. It is important that the long-term safety and security of this pipeline can be guaranteed. Moreover, the construction and maintenance process must be carried out cost-effectively. Polyethylene with raised crack resistance (PE100-RC) was selected as a potential piping material. As there is little experience with the combination of this PE piping material and hydrogen gas, a study was carried out before construction work started. This study considered safety and material aspects, as well as maintenance issues for this particular pipeline at this specific location. Factors such as installation modes of the pipe and various possible maintenance activities during the operational phase were considered. A number of important material parameters, such as the permeation rate and the fusibility after prolonged exposure to hydrogen gas, were investigated for the selected PE100-RC material. The results of the study and additional insights into the construction of this pipeline are presented.

In the near future, the available volume of hydrogen gas is set to increase. This is especially so if the surplus renewable energy generated by photovoltaic cells or wind turbines is used to produce hydrogen gas. This could result in additional opportunities beyond the new applications mentioned above. The existing natural gas network offers new and economically interesting opportunities to store and transport this excess renewable energy in the form of hydrogen gas. However, a possible drawback is the volume of hydrogen gas emitted from the oldest natural gas networks as a result of permeation, since this may prove to be higher than for modern PE materials. As such, permeation tests on these old (first-generation) PE pipes will also be investigated in the near future.

Related keywords : Polyethylene, PE100-RC, Hydrogen, Permeation, Electrofusion, Maintenance.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website onlySource : 2018 Las-Vegas


Related papers

A new flexible jointing method of plastic (PE) pipes

Author(s) : Yilaing He, Tianjun Zhang 2018 Las-Vegas

A new electrofusion PE belt is developed by reinforcing it with various layers of steel mesh. It’s of sandwich structure, consisting of steel mesh reinforcement, heating wire and polyethylene. One or more layers of steel mesh is encapsulated in the middle, and heating wire is embedded onto “inner side” of the...

Acceptance criteria for volume defects in welded assemblies, detected and sized using the phased array ultrasonic technique

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Manuel TESSIER, Romuald BOUAFFRE 2018 Las-Vegas

Given the virtual absence of available up-to-date results regarding the acceptance criteria for defects at electro-welding interfaces, a study has been launched by GRTgaz RICE with the two-fold aim of confirming the accuracy of the PAUT technique for the detection and sizing of calibrated pit-shaped defects implanted...

Aging mechanism of polyethylene pipe material in chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite solution

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Alex Stolarz, Gerald Pinter 2018 Las-Vegas

Accelerated aging experiments by the immersion of a commercial polyethylene (PE) pipe grade in 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and in 100 ppm of hypochlorite (HOCl) solution at 60 °C were performed. An additional immersion test was conducted in 1 ppm of ClO2 at 40 °C. The exposure parameters were continuously...

Assessing the remaining service lifetime of PE pipes: an australian case study

Author(s) : Nolene Byrne, Rasike De Silva, Keith Lenghaus, Tim Hilditch 2018 Las-Vegas

Plastic pipes have been utilized in the Australian gas distribution network since the early 1970s. The most common plastic type found in Australia is polyethylene (PE), although nylon is extensively used in New South Wales. Early installation of PE pipe was completed using the first generation high density type PE50...

Characterization of post-use polyethylene and polypropylene recyclate blends for pipe applications

Author(s) : Markus Gall, Reinhold W. Lang, Joerg Fischer, Ansgar Niehoff, Steven Schmidt 2018 Las-Vegas

Despite recent efforts in promoting the utilization of recycled polymeric materials for more diverse and more advanced applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps with regards to the applicability of certain recyclate types for specific “re-use” purposes. When it comes to pipe applications, for...

Chlorine dioxide resistant HDPE mechanism, analytical tools and solutions

Author(s) : M. Boerakker, S. van Mierloo, D. v. Beek, R. Schipper, P. Voets, M. Soliman, K. Jacobson, D. Lukes, B. Rabaud, F. Zraick 2018 Las-Vegas

HDPE pipes are used for standard pressurized water pipes, offering an excellent solution for safe transport of (drinking) water. The HDPE pipe market is growing globally. Especially in countries that suffer from water scarcity, surface water and water from rivers have to be used for drinking water supply. To guarantee...

Development of cyclic pressure fatigue (CPF) test method

Author(s) : Ernest Lever 2018 Las-Vegas

Six different polyethylene materials were tested using Cyclic Pressure Fatigue (CPF) as the accelerating process to correlate the results to conventional long-term hydrostatic test results that were previously developed as part of the material qualification process. The designation of the materials was unknown to the...

Development of polyethylene ball valve to pursue robustness

Author(s) : Ryosuke Nagahisa, Shinichi Katoh 2018 Las-Vegas

We investigated the possibility of using a greaseless polyethylene (PE) ball valve by applying a coating on it to improve the valve’s robustness. In order to verify the valve’s operability, we performed initial-operating-torque, abrasion, and dust tests on both grease-applied and coatingapplied ball valves. These...

Effect of carbon black distribution on polyethylene pipes

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Nisha Preschilla, Birkan Eryigit 2018 Las-Vegas

Pipes with inhomogeneous CB distribution showed 80% less elongation than pipes with homogenously distributed CB. Polymer domains with less or no CB (windows) showed delamination from the polymer matrix as the material elongated, finally leading to fracture much earlier than expected. In this study, we investigated the...

Extrusion of thick wall pipes using a new bimodal PE 4710/PE 100 resin

Author(s) : Vivek Rohatg, Gregor Hiesgen, Mark J. Lamborn, Ashish M. Sukhadia, Douglas E. Simpson, David W. Borrego, Pamela L. Maeger 2018 Las-Vegas

Maintaining dimensions within specifications is problematic for the extrusion of large diameter thick-wall polyethylene (PE) pipe (> 75 mm wall) due to sag caused by insufficient resin melt strength. However, sag can be controlled through careful resin selection and optimization of the pipe cooling process. This...

High density polyethylene (HDPE): an overview of the first ever asme bPVC section iii, class 3 nuclear piping installation

Author(s) : Ali Al Hammadi, Shane R. Schuessler, Mohamed Ali Awadh Jaber 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper presents the advancements of HDPE piping materials, design and installation for use in ASME Class 3 piping systems at nuclear power plants. The paper will specifically introduce details of the first ever ASME Class III nuclear new build use of Class 3 HDPE pipe and fittings at the Emirates Nuclear Energy...

High modulus PP tanks delivers practical & cost effective sewage treatment to rural indonesia

Author(s) : Marc van Loo (Dr.), Constant Van Aerschot, KumHoong Lou 2018 Las-Vegas

In many parts of rural developing Asia and even some parts of Africa, sewerage from households is often discharged directly to the surrounding. This unfortunate fact means that many waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid continue to afflict these communities. Numerous efforts from governments,...

Increasing HDPE butt fusion productivity by optimizing the cool time based on thermal mass characteristics without compromising joint strength

Author(s) : Amanda Hawkins, Jason Lawrence, Xiangli Meng 2018 Las-Vegas

High Density Polyethylene pipes are used in various applications due to the material’s superior chemical resistance, pressure capability, and ductility. For the material to perform at the optimal design criteria, the connections and fabrications must be fused using repeatable procedures that specify proper fusion...

Laboratory device for checking the thermal energy delivered by the electrofusion fittings

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Adil BOUJLAL, Aymeric LOPITAUX, Bertrand SEVRE 2018 Las-Vegas

A special concept has been developed by GRTgaz Research and Innovation Center for Energy (RICE) for temperature mapping at the interface of an electrowelded assembly.The technical solution consists of a tubular piece in place of the real PE pipe, made of a non-weldable polymer with thermal parameters close to those of...

Large pressure pipe system – Fully PE100

Author(s) : Sverre Tragethon, Martin Andersson 2018 Las-Vegas

Global mega trends push for investments in sewage treatment capacity & efficiency. A trend is to go for central regional treatment sites, typically remotely located from dense populated cities. This calls for high capacity pressure sewage transmission pipelines. Reliable operation is of course of paramount...

New discoveries in stabilizing drinking water pipes in contact with chlorine dioxide

Author(s) : J.D. Kim, S. Kim , T. Schmutz, C. Malchaire, D. Scholz, K. Keck 2018 Las-Vegas

Since a few years, pipe producers are facing the challenge to protect their plastic pipe from degradation due to chlorine dioxide. Unfortunately, most existing stabilization solutions are not effective enough to insure the desired lifetime of the material. This study shows how the latest development allow to top-up...

New testing method for electrofusion welds

Author(s) : Dr. Love Pallon, Dr. Karin Jacobsson, Daniel Ejdeholm, Marie Allvar, Rikard Kärrbrant 2018 Las-Vegas

This work presents the development of the Full Length Tensile Test (FLTT), a method that enables an objective judgement of welding quality of electrofusion welds by measuring the energy to break (J/mm2 ). In this way a brittle, ductile and transitional mode failure can be differentiated without subjective visual...

Pe100 large diameter water transmission pipelines take off in Asia

Author(s) : Andrew Wedgner, Muhammad Qasim, Arsenio Sembrano 2018 Las-Vegas

Developments in material and pipe extrusion technology now enable converters to produce PE100 solid wall pipes of up to 2,800mm OD, but the use of such large diameters has been limited to industrial applications. This is now starting to change with water transmission pipelines of up to 1400mm OD being laid in the UAE...

PE100-RC in large diameter sea outfall applications

Author(s) : Mark Yu, Dongyu Fang, Peck Tze Kang, Amos Tay , Fan Liu 2018 Las-Vegas

Large diameter pipe was introduced in refineries and petrochemical plant, desalination plant and power plant for water intake and sea out fall in the past decade. PE100-RC material was selectedfor its excellent balance of superior bi-modal stress crack resistance and consistent high stiffness modulus. Under the...

Performance evaluation of counter-rotating continuous mixer and co-rotating twin screw extruder for high density polyethylene

Author(s) : Sayaka Yamada, Kazuhide Sekiyama, Shiori Watanabe, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Hideo Funahashi 2018 Las-Vegas

Performance evaluation method of plastic mixers for high density polyethylene by using flow simulation is presented in this study. First, Mixing experiments were performed to find the mixing performance of mixers. Then, flow simulations using our original software in the mixers were carried out to know the important...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
TOP