Our site uses cookies necessary for its proper functioning. To improve your experience, other cookies may be used: you can choose to disable them. This can be changed at any time via the Cookies link at the bottom of the page.


Modern PE pipe enables the transport of hydrogen

 

Papers # 2018 Las-Vegas

To investigate the suitability of PE pipes for the transport of hydrogen on a specific industrial site, three topics were investigated. These topics are: the chemical resistance of PE to hydrogen, the permeation rate of hydrogen through PE and the electrofusion of PE pipes exposed to hydrogen. It can be concluded that the tested PE100-RC pipes on the premises of Groningen Seaport are suitable for the transport of hydrogen at pressures of up to 2 bar. However, during design and maintenance, the specific characteristics of hydrogen that distinguish it from methane need to be taken into account.

At Groningen Seaports, hydrogen gas is produced as a by-product on a local chemical site. To encourage reuse of this kind of energy-rich waste, the hydrogen is used as a fuel for scheduled buses in the northern part of the Netherlands (Groningen).

A special pipeline is installed to transport the hydrogen from the production facility to the filling station where the buses are fueled with the hydrogen. It is important that the long-term safety and security of this pipeline can be guaranteed. Moreover, the construction and maintenance process must be carried out cost-effectively. Polyethylene with raised crack resistance (PE100-RC) was selected as a potential piping material. As there is little experience with the combination of this PE piping material and hydrogen gas, a study was carried out before construction work started. This study considered safety and material aspects, as well as maintenance issues for this particular pipeline at this specific location. Factors such as installation modes of the pipe and various possible maintenance activities during the operational phase were considered. A number of important material parameters, such as the permeation rate and the fusibility after prolonged exposure to hydrogen gas, were investigated for the selected PE100-RC material. The results of the study and additional insights into the construction of this pipeline are presented.

In the near future, the available volume of hydrogen gas is set to increase. This is especially so if the surplus renewable energy generated by photovoltaic cells or wind turbines is used to produce hydrogen gas. This could result in additional opportunities beyond the new applications mentioned above. The existing natural gas network offers new and economically interesting opportunities to store and transport this excess renewable energy in the form of hydrogen gas. However, a possible drawback is the volume of hydrogen gas emitted from the oldest natural gas networks as a result of permeation, since this may prove to be higher than for modern PE materials. As such, permeation tests on these old (first-generation) PE pipes will also be investigated in the near future.

Related keywords : Polyethylene, PE100-RC, Hydrogen, Permeation, Electrofusion, Maintenance.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only


Related papers

2021 Amsterdam : A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : A. Taraiya, P. Degenhart, M. Soliman, M. Boerakker, R. Handstanger, R. Kleppinger

Since the introduction of polyolefins for pressure pipes, continuous improvements have been made to meet ever-higher demands on their performance and to expand their application window beyond their original scope, mostly based on new resin formulations. Today, we also continue to push the limit to provide better...

2021 Amsterdam : AN EVIDENTIAL APPROACH TO USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE FOR HYDROGEN FUEL GASES

Author(s) : Derek Muckle

A technical program has been undertaken to provide evidence on the suitability of polyethylene pipe and fitting systems for the distribution of hydrogen fuel gas. The underlying principle has been to evaluate material in the form of a pipe and to consider the performance of the pipe and of the welded jointing systems...

2021 Amsterdam : DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MONITORING SYSTEM FOR HDPE WATER PIPELINES CROSSING AN EARTHQUAKE FAULT

Author(s) : Peter Hubbard, Linqing Luo, Andrew Yeskoo, Kenichi Soga, Krista (Moita) Araica, Gus Cicala, Marshall McLeod

Seismically active faults pose a risk to buried water pipelines that can be complicated to quantify. Fault type, slip rate, pipeline geometry, and soil conditions all factor into a complex soil-pipeline interaction. For critical pipelines that cross faults, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has become an attractive...

2021 Amsterdam : DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID AND INNOVATIVE IN-FACTORY PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THE PERFORMANCES OF PE PIPES CONTAINING VARIOUS PROPORTIONS OF RECYCLED POLYMER MATERIAL

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Pascal AUSSANT, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Myriam BECHROURI

Concerns regarding the environment and sustainable development have revived interest in the reprocessing and re-use of polymer materials from manufactured objects that have reached the end of their operating life. Within this framework, formal professional agreements have been put in place at global level under the...

2021 Amsterdam : EFFECT OF CHLORINATED WATER ON THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE COMPOUNDS WITH RECYCLATE CONTENT FOR PIPE APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Paul J. Freudenthaler, Joerg Fischer, Mathias Eder, Reinhold W. Lang

For controlled water disinfection, typically chlorine is used and preliminary studies demonstrate its aging and crack growth acceleration effects on polyolefin pipe materials [1, 2]. Although the use of recycled plastics is not prohibited in some ISO standards for polyolefin piping systems [3–5], only small amounts...

2021 Amsterdam : EFFECT OF INSUFFICIENT HOMOGENIZATION DURING THE EXTRUSION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES ON BUTT FUSION JOINT INTEGRITY

Author(s) : Mike Troughton, Amir Khamsehnezhad, Changyi Yu

When butt fusion welding polyethylene (PE) pipes in the field, it is often specified that the pipes must undergo fusibility testing in all combinations of suppliers, diameters and thicknesses before being fused in production. This is a very onerous and expensive task, but must be carried out to ensure that the PE...

2021 Amsterdam : EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND LONG- TERM DURABILITY OF AGED POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Shuhei Nishida, Shintaro Iwasaki, Hidefumi Yamanaka, Takahiro Kasatani

Polyethylene pipelines have been used for natural gas service applications for over 40 years in Japan. It is thought that they will continue to be used widely for many years. Therefore, it is important to confirm the conditions of the existing pipelines being used for the long term. In this study, polyethylene pipes...

2021 Amsterdam : FINDING THE RIGHT PIPE TEST FOR POLYETHYLENE WITH RAISED RESISTANCE TO SLOW CRACK GROWTH

Author(s) : Ernst van der Stok

For PE 100-RC, two tests are still under development for pipes: the point load test (PLT) and the accelerated notch pipe test (aNPT). The PLT was developed by a project group consisting of manufacturers and end users. The PLT determines the resistance to point loads as they can occur in practice. An earlier study...

2021 Amsterdam : FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) USED TO SIMULATE THE STRESS/STRAIN OF THE POINT LOAD TEST (PLT) IN A BROADER STUDY TO SUPPORT THE FUTURE ISO TEST STANDARD

Author(s) : S. Nestelberger, J. Cheng

The Point Load Test (PLT) [‎ 1, ‎ 2] was designed to simulate the SCG (slow crack growth) failure initiated by a rock pressing into the exterior wall of a polymer pipe. Today’s PE materials sustain long PLT testing times, due to its high SCG resistance design. Consequently, an accelerated “PLT+” with the support of...

2021 Amsterdam : FIRST USE OF PE100-HT CONDUITS FOR ADVANCING THE CONTAINMENT OF UNDERGROUND HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES

Author(s) : Dr. Holger Brüning, Serge Hascoët, Yann Delanne, Didier Nozahic, Jawdat Mansour, José Santana

RTE operates, maintains and develops the French electricity network, including the High and very High Voltage cable lines. Their network is the largest in Europe and includes over 6400 km of underground HV links operated in 2018. The company is modernizing and developing its network by investing 1.5 billion euros per...

2021 Amsterdam : GROWTH IN THE USE OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN MEA FOR NATURAL GAS UTILITY DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Sultan Alkendi, Mohamed Jaber, Ahmed Atef Helal

The current push to reduce governmental energy subsidies has moved the need to adapt utility gas distribution networks toward the top of Middle Eastern governmental near-term agendas. Egypt is at the forefront of this push towards gasification. The United Arab Emirates has started on the path towards gasification...

2021 Amsterdam : HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN POLYMER PIPES FOR NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION – TEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Author(s) : Stephan Kneck, Henrik Iskov

It has become ever clearer that the resources of natural gas are an energy source, which will be less important in the future due to limitations in use of natural reserves. In order to prepare for the future the gas industry is looking at the alternative fuel gases, one such fuel gas is hydrogen. In order to prepare...

2021 Amsterdam : INVESTIGATION OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYAMIDE 12 PIPE WELDS

Author(s) : M. Eckes & Dr. B. Baudrit, Dr. M. Troughton & D. Wylie, H. van Laak & J. Fritz

Unplasticized polyamide 12 (PA-U12) is increasingly being used in pipe applications, especially in the gas sector. However, the material behavior in the usual quality tests for pipe welds has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, two research institutes, worked in cooperation with a manufacturer of...

2021 Amsterdam : MECHANICAL INTERGRITY OF HDPE BUTT FUSION JOINTS – EFFECT OF CARBON BLACK DISTRIBUTION

Author(s) : Suleyman Deveci, Nisha Preschilla, Sulistiyanto Nugroho, Birkan Eryigit

Carbon black (CB) has been used as a perfect and the cheapest solution to prevent photo degradation of polyethylene against UV light exposure. The effect of carbon black on the mechanical properties of polyethylene pipes was studied extensively, but only on well dispersed and distributed carbon black...

2021 Amsterdam : NEW CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPES WITH HIGH THERMAL STABILITY AND LOW PERMEATION FOR PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Author(s) : Gisbert Rieß, Katrin Berger, Anna Kaltenegger-Uray, Florian Arbeiter

The effect of electron-beam and silane crosslink of polyethylene on the resulting permeation characteristics was investigated. Polyethylene sheets were processed and crosslinked by irradiation with high energy electrons and by grafting and subsequent hydrolysis of organosilanes during a reactive extrusion process. The...

2021 Amsterdam : POLYETHYLENE OF RAISED TEMPERATURE (PE-RT) IN LOW TEMPERATURE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

Author(s) : Alex Stolarz, Klaus Grønnegaard Lauridsen

Low temperature District Heating – COOL DH – addresses the challenges of the upcoming decades in the energy sector for new housing developments. Energy efficiency is an important aspect of modern building construction. Improved building insulation and other technologies result in lower heat demand and enable new...

2021 Amsterdam : PRESSURE PIPELINE MADE OF HDPE – DETERMINATION OF REMAINING LIFETIME AFTER 47 YEARS OF OPERATION IN LAKE OSSIACH (CARINTHIA, AUSTRIA)

Author(s) : Ulrich Schulte, Dr. -Ing. Joachim Hessel

In order to protect the Austrian lakes effectively against the discharge of effluent, a 13 km long pressure pipeline made of high density polyethylene was laid on the bottom of Lake Ossiach back in 1971. The DN355 to DN200 pipes were produced from a first generation HDPE-compound. The classification would have been...

2021 Amsterdam : RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA PE WATER PIPE STANDARDIZATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE APPLICATION OF PE100 PRE-COMPOUND

Author(s) : Xinwen Yu, Aimin Xiang, Dongyu Fang, Peck Tze Kang, Jinghui Li

The Chinese PE water pipe market has developed significantly in recent years and particularly over the last 12 months. Against a background of water scarcity and growing urbanization, this evolving market has grown significantly in both size and quality awareness. On the back of past experiences, a fundamental...

2021 Amsterdam : RESTRAINED MECHANICAL JOINING DEVICES FOR HDPE PIPE: PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST PROTOCOL

Author(s) : Justin Brandt, Mike Griffin, Tony Cuvo

As plastic pipe gains share in new markets and applications, additional joining methods add further value, enabling continued growth for plastic pipes. To date, definitions of a “fit-for-purpose” mechanical joint for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pressure piping systems can vary significantly. As such, mechanical...

2021 Amsterdam : SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN POLYETHYLENE PIPES: FRACTURE SURFACE EVIDENCE FOR THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH MECHANISM IN ACCELERATED TESTS

Author(s) : Mark Boerakker, Rudy Deblieck, a Harm Caelers, Arno Wilbers, Tine Boonen a DSM, Britta Gerets, Mirko Wenzel

Components made of plastic are facing ever-increasing demands with respect to their production, use and durability. This also holds for gas and drinking water pressure pipes made of high-density polyethylene (PE-HD), where service lifetimes of up to 50 years and in some cases even 100 years are required. One of the...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
Webinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless TechnologyWebinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless Technology

On march 10th, was held the PE 100+ ASSOCIATION first webinar. The webinar was a great success and attracted a large audience. 

TOP