Effect of carbon black distribution on polyethylene pipes

 

Papers # 2018 Las-Vegas

Pipes with inhomogeneous CB distribution showed 80% less elongation than pipes with homogenously distributed CB. Polymer domains with less or no CB (windows) showed delamination from the polymer matrix as the material elongated, finally leading to fracture much earlier than expected.

In this study, we investigated the effect of carbon black distribution on the degradation of mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene in the form of plastic pipes used in water distribution networks. Polyethylene pipes with similar carbon black concentrations but different carbon black distributions were produced with industrial scale compounding and extrusion equipment. Tensile specimens were directly prepared from extruded pipe samples and elongated to fracture at different strain rates. Carbon black distributions of bulk samples and fracture surfaces were investigated using stereo and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the carbon black distributions, fracture surfaces and fracture modes were significantly different in these pipes. Although the yield properties were similar, the post-yield properties of samples were significantly different, dramatically decreasing with the carbon black distribution. Pipes with a certain level of heterogeneity in the carbon black distribution showed ductile and brittle fractures in the same fracture plane, whereas homogenous black and natural polyethylene (without carbon black) showed ductile fractures only. 

Related keywords : polyethylene pipe, carbon black distribution, tensile properties, fracture surface.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website onlySource : 2018 Las-Vegas


Related papers

A new flexible jointing method of plastic (PE) pipes

Author(s) : Yilaing He, Tianjun Zhang 2018 Las-Vegas

A new electrofusion PE belt is developed by reinforcing it with various layers of steel mesh. It’s of sandwich structure, consisting of steel mesh reinforcement, heating wire and polyethylene. One or more layers of steel mesh is encapsulated in the middle, and heating wire is embedded onto “inner side” of the...

Accelerated pipe test methods to evaluate PE 100-RC materials - Possibilities for iso standardisation

Author(s) : Thomas R. Kratochvilla, Raimund Eremiasch, Christoph Bruckner 2018 Las-Vegas

In the last years effort has been made to develop and standardise new accelerated test methods to evaluate PE 100-RC materials in short times in form of test bars. The two most important developments, the cracked round bar test (CRB test) and the strain hardening test (SH test) were published as final ISO standards in...

Acceptance criteria for volume defects in welded assemblies, detected and sized using the phased array ultrasonic technique

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Manuel TESSIER, Romuald BOUAFFRE 2018 Las-Vegas

Given the virtual absence of available up-to-date results regarding the acceptance criteria for defects at electro-welding interfaces, a study has been launched by GRTgaz RICE with the two-fold aim of confirming the accuracy of the PAUT technique for the detection and sizing of calibrated pit-shaped defects implanted...

Aging mechanism of polyethylene pipe material in chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite solution

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Alex Stolarz, Gerald Pinter 2018 Las-Vegas

Accelerated aging experiments by the immersion of a commercial polyethylene (PE) pipe grade in 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and in 100 ppm of hypochlorite (HOCl) solution at 60 °C were performed. An additional immersion test was conducted in 1 ppm of ClO2 at 40 °C. The exposure parameters were continuously...

Assessing the remaining service lifetime of PE pipes: an australian case study

Author(s) : Nolene Byrne, Rasike De Silva, Keith Lenghaus, Tim Hilditch 2018 Las-Vegas

Plastic pipes have been utilized in the Australian gas distribution network since the early 1970s. The most common plastic type found in Australia is polyethylene (PE), although nylon is extensively used in New South Wales. Early installation of PE pipe was completed using the first generation high density type PE50...

Biomimetic design concepts for the pipe architecture of tomorrow

Author(s) : Gerald Pinter, Florian Arbeiter, Johannes Wiener, Andreas Frank, Otmar Kolednik 2018 Las-Vegas

In order to further increase the fracture toughness of pipes, biomimetic layer design of the pipe wall can be used. Therein, soft polymer interlayers can act as crack-arresters in a matrix of stiffer and inherently more brittle polymers. The effectiveness of the crack arresting role of soft interlayers in a...

Characterization of post-use polyethylene and polypropylene recyclate blends for pipe applications

Author(s) : Markus Gall, Reinhold W. Lang, Joerg Fischer, Ansgar Niehoff, Steven Schmidt 2018 Las-Vegas

Despite recent efforts in promoting the utilization of recycled polymeric materials for more diverse and more advanced applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps with regards to the applicability of certain recyclate types for specific “re-use” purposes. When it comes to pipe applications, for...

China plastic pipe industry - Technical progress and quality improvement

Author(s) : Wang Zhanjie 2018 Las-Vegas

As the largest production country, with numerous applications, China’s plastic pipe industry is developing steadily to meet the demand and needs. This paper analyzes the current situation and barriers, and proposes the breakthroughs to achieve a sustainable, stable and healthy development of China’s plastic pipe...

CPVC application in the fire sprinkler system in China

Author(s) : Jiang Tongjun, Fu Zhimin, Yang Yuanjin 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper introduces the application of CPVC pipe in fire sprinkler systems in China. The advantages and differences of CPVC pipe versus to galvanized steel pipes, the improvement of related laws and regulations and the market outlook are discussed. The overall result is a change in the upstream and downstream...

Design and qualification of PA-PERT pipe for oil and gas transportation

Author(s) : Liang Yu, Akshay Ponda, Dane Chang 2018 Las-Vegas

Following the development of US shale oil and gas production since 2007, the demand for thermoplastic pipes with better corrosion resistance, and lower installation and operation cost than carbon steel pipe, has been growing significantly. Nylon 12 has been qualified for hydrocarbon transportation in offshore flexible...

Development of cyclic pressure fatigue (CPF) test method

Author(s) : Ernest Lever 2018 Las-Vegas

Six different polyethylene materials were tested using Cyclic Pressure Fatigue (CPF) as the accelerating process to correlate the results to conventional long-term hydrostatic test results that were previously developed as part of the material qualification process. The designation of the materials was unknown to the...

Development of polyethylene ball valve to pursue robustness

Author(s) : Ryosuke Nagahisa, Shinichi Katoh 2018 Las-Vegas

We investigated the possibility of using a greaseless polyethylene (PE) ball valve by applying a coating on it to improve the valve’s robustness. In order to verify the valve’s operability, we performed initial-operating-torque, abrasion, and dust tests on both grease-applied and coatingapplied ball valves. These...

Development status and technical requirements of composite insulating plastic pipe

Author(s) : HU Fa, LI Yue, GAO Yuanjie, ZHE Dongmei, WEI Ruoqi 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper expounds the development status of composite insulating pipe in the heating and chemical fields from the aspects of materials, structure and application. Combined with the relevant standards and technical requirements, the performance advantages and the key evaluation methods such as axial shear strength,...

Effect of beta-nucleation on aging and crack growth resistance of polypropylene exposed to chlorinated water

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Paul J. Freudenthaler, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang, Susan C. Mantell 2018 Las-Vegas

This research addresses the effect of nucleation on the global aging behavior and the fatigue crack growth (FCG) resistance of commercial alpha- and beta-nucleated polypropylene random copolymer pipe grades (PP-R) when exposed to chlorinated water (5 mg/l free chlorine) at an elevated temperature of 60°C. Comparing...

Engineering and testing requirements for infrastructure pipeline applications utilizing HDPE recycled materials

Author(s) : John Kurdziel, Michael Pluimer 2018 Las-Vegas

Corrugated HDPE pipes have been successfully used for decades for sewers, culverts and land drainage applications and are advantageous due to their durability and service life in a variety of installation conditions. Pipes used for highway and storm sewer applications typically require stricter material standards than...

Extrusion of thick wall pipes using a new bimodal PE 4710/PE 100 resin

Author(s) : Vivek Rohatg, Gregor Hiesgen, Mark J. Lamborn, Ashish M. Sukhadia, Douglas E. Simpson, David W. Borrego, Pamela L. Maeger 2018 Las-Vegas

Maintaining dimensions within specifications is problematic for the extrusion of large diameter thick-wall polyethylene (PE) pipe (> 75 mm wall) due to sag caused by insufficient resin melt strength. However, sag can be controlled through careful resin selection and optimization of the pipe cooling process. This...

Field test of Glass fiber reinforced polyethylene pipe system at soften ground

Author(s) : Mitsuaki TOKIYOSHI, Gentaro TAKAHARA, Joji HINOBAYASHI, Toshinori KAWABATA, Takashi KURIYAMA 2018 Las-Vegas

Glass fiber reinforced polyethylene pipes and fittings are controlled for bending characteristics (Strength and stiffness) for vertical and axial directions of pipe by spiral cross winding method. Generally, to use this method, it takes much stronger for vertical strength than axials cause of extruded direction,...

Guidelines for corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with recycled materials for highway culvert and storm drain applications

Author(s) : Michael Pluimer, Richard Thomas 2018 Las-Vegas

Over the past decade, there have been several key research projects to evaluate the performance of corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with post-consumer and postindustrial recycled materials for highway and railroad drainage applications. Three of these projects were recently completed and published (NCHRP Project...

High density polyethylene (HDPE): an overview of the first ever asme bPVC section iii, class 3 nuclear piping installation

Author(s) : Ali Al Hammadi, Shane R. Schuessler, Mohamed Ali Awadh Jaber 2018 Las-Vegas

This paper presents the advancements of HDPE piping materials, design and installation for use in ASME Class 3 piping systems at nuclear power plants. The paper will specifically introduce details of the first ever ASME Class III nuclear new build use of Class 3 HDPE pipe and fittings at the Emirates Nuclear Energy...

Increasing HDPE butt fusion productivity by optimizing the cool time based on thermal mass characteristics without compromising joint strength

Author(s) : Amanda Hawkins, Jason Lawrence, Xiangli Meng 2018 Las-Vegas

High Density Polyethylene pipes are used in various applications due to the material’s superior chemical resistance, pressure capability, and ductility. For the material to perform at the optimal design criteria, the connections and fabrications must be fused using repeatable procedures that specify proper fusion...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
TOP