Our site uses cookies necessary for its proper functioning. To improve your experience, other cookies may be used: you can choose to disable them. This can be changed at any time via the Cookies link at the bottom of the page.


Literature review: effect of clo 2 on ageing of polymer materials and related test methods

 

Papers # 2018 Las-Vegas

The lack of a fast, universally-accepted test method for chlorine-dioxide-disinfected water is hindering the development of improved plastic piping materials. A literature survey was performed to define the degradation process in which chlorine dioxide affects the ageing of polypropylene, and to describe and reflect on the different test methods stipulated by standards and developed by research institutes.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is increasingly used in drinking water applications, due to its high efficiency as a disinfectant. However, it also attacks polyolefins more aggressively than hypochlorite (ClO- ). This has led to premature failure of water pipes, especially at higher service temperatures.

To make polyolefins in general, and polypropylene specifically, more resistant to ClO2, it is imperative that the degradation mechanism is understood. Furthermore, these materials need to be tested in a rapid but functional manner to verify their resistance to the relevant failure mechanism as found in service. A literature survey was therefore carried out to define the degradation process and to describe and reflect on the different test methods stipulated by standards and developed by research institutes. It was concluded that it is imperative to ensure that the failure mode is not altered by accelerated ageing. Test methods should therefore use realistic concentrations and temperature conditions, which should be as close as possible to service conditions. This makes acceleration difficult. Flow, pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) must be monitored and controlled. Finally, the presence of an (applied) stress is crucial for the test to be representative of real service failures.

If pipe failure is the parameter used to characterize pipe performance, it is not realistic to expect results within a reasonable time. This means that another ranking criterion is required. A better understanding of the degradation mechanism of PP in ClO2 and the influence of stress is necessary to find the best parameters to identify an early warning signal that can predict final pipe failure.

Related keywords : Oxidative degradation, Aging, Polypropylene, Chlorine Dioxide.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only


Related papers

2021 Amsterdam : A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYETHYLENE AND POLYPROPYLENE PRESSURE PIPES

Author(s) : A. Taraiya, P. Degenhart, M. Soliman, M. Boerakker, R. Handstanger, R. Kleppinger

Since the introduction of polyolefins for pressure pipes, continuous improvements have been made to meet ever-higher demands on their performance and to expand their application window beyond their original scope, mostly based on new resin formulations. Today, we also continue to push the limit to provide better...

2021 Amsterdam : DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID AND INNOVATIVE IN-FACTORY PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THE PERFORMANCES OF PE PIPES CONTAINING VARIOUS PROPORTIONS OF RECYCLED POLYMER MATERIAL

Author(s) : Dominique GUEUGNAUT, Pascal AUSSANT, Romuald BOUAFFRE, Myriam BECHROURI

Concerns regarding the environment and sustainable development have revived interest in the reprocessing and re-use of polymer materials from manufactured objects that have reached the end of their operating life. Within this framework, formal professional agreements have been put in place at global level under the...

2021 Amsterdam : POLYPROPYLENE PIPE IN DEMANDING HYDRONIC HEATING APPLICATIONS

Author(s) : Steve Sandstrum, Chris Ziu

The market for high performance polypropylene (PP) piping systems in North America continues to evolve. Generally, PP piping systems have performed exceptionally well in a variety of challenging HVAC, industrial and plumbing applications. As a result, the engineering community in North America is embracing higher...

2021 Amsterdam : Risk Assessment of Non-Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) in potable water

Author(s) : Dr Ruediger Liske, Dr Tobias Eltze, Dr Tania Weyland, Marie-Laure Bertet

The migration of NIAS (Non-Intentionally Added Substances) into potable water is a recurring topic for the distribution of cold and warm drinking water and related materialsindustry. These substances are chemical compounds that are present in drinking water contact materials but have not been added during the...

2021 Amsterdam : SMART TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOR ECONOMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC PIPE FORMULATIONS

Author(s) : Andrew J. White, Paul Dietz

FP-Pigments is a global manufacturer of a unique series of titanium dioxide pigment products and have been supplying the coatings, plastics, paper and inks markets for over 10 years, helping our customers reduce their raw material costs while maintaining product quality and performance. We have plants in both...

2018 Las-Vegas : Aging mechanism of polyethylene pipe material in chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite solution

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Alex Stolarz, Gerald Pinter

Accelerated aging experiments by the immersion of a commercial polyethylene (PE) pipe grade in 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and in 100 ppm of hypochlorite (HOCl) solution at 60 °C were performed. An additional immersion test was conducted in 1 ppm of ClO2 at 40 °C. The exposure parameters were continuously...

2018 Las-Vegas : Characterization of post-use polyethylene and polypropylene recyclate blends for pipe applications

Author(s) : Markus Gall, Reinhold W. Lang, Joerg Fischer, Ansgar Niehoff, Steven Schmidt

Despite recent efforts in promoting the utilization of recycled polymeric materials for more diverse and more advanced applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps with regards to the applicability of certain recyclate types for specific “re-use” purposes. When it comes to pipe applications, for instance,...

2018 Las-Vegas : Chlorine dioxide resistant HDPE mechanism, analytical tools and solutions

Author(s) : M. Boerakker, S. van Mierloo, D. v. Beek, R. Schipper, P. Voets, M. Soliman, K. Jacobson, D. Lukes, B. Rabaud, F. Zraick

HDPE pipes are used for standard pressurized water pipes, offering an excellent solution for safe transport of (drinking) water. The HDPE pipe market is growing globally. Especially in countries that suffer from water scarcity, surface water and water from rivers have to be used for drinking water supply. To guarantee...

2018 Las-Vegas : Effect of beta-nucleation on aging and crack growth resistance of polypropylene exposed to chlorinated water

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Paul J. Freudenthaler, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang, Susan C. Mantell

This research addresses the effect of nucleation on the global aging behavior and the fatigue crack growth (FCG) resistance of commercial alpha- and beta-nucleated polypropylene random copolymer pipe grades (PP-R) when exposed to chlorinated water (5 mg/l free chlorine) at an elevated temperature of 60°C. Comparing...

2018 Las-Vegas : Fatigue crack growth testing in chlorinated water at elevated temperatures - Test equipment and test procedure

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang

In the present paper, a novel test system for conducting fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments under superimposed mechanical-environmental conditions is presented. FCG experiments were performed on a polypropylene (PP) grade and a short-glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 (PA-GF) grade as model materials. The...

2018 Las-Vegas : New discoveries in stabilizing drinking water pipes in contact with chlorine dioxide

Author(s) : J.D. Kim, S. Kim , T. Schmutz, C. Malchaire, D. Scholz, K. Keck

Since a few years, pipe producers are facing the challenge to protect their plastic pipe from degradation due to chlorine dioxide. Unfortunately, most existing stabilization solutions are not effective enough to insure the desired lifetime of the material. This study shows how the latest development allow to top-up...

2018 Las-Vegas : New high modulus polypropylene helps the development of large diameter utility tunnel

Author(s) : Dongyu Fang, Mark Yu, Zhang Qingfu

In the present paper we introduced how high modulus polypropylene helps an innovative design of utility tunnel up to 4000mm in diameter. High modulus polypropylene shows high modulus but still maintain reasonable flexibility so that tunnel and surrounding soil could form an integrated system, which means no force is...

2018 Las-Vegas : Study on parameters affecting durability of polyethylene pipes for hot water application

Author(s) : Hirofumi Kyutoku, Kazuhisa Igawa, Hidekazu Honma, Sakiko Fukunishi, Hiroyuki Nishimura

There are mainly two grades of polyethylene pipes for hot water supply and heating. The excellent molecular structure polyethylene resins having resistance to stress crack growth are used because hot water is flowed for a long time in both polyethylene pipes. Furthermore, various additives are mixed to prevent the...

2016 Berlin : A combination of accelerated test methods to evaluate new generation resins for disinfectant- resistant polyethylene pipes

Author(s) : Francis Reny Costa, Anh Tuan Tran, Jeroen Oderkerk, Thomas Hjertberg, Christophe Salles, Ulf W. Gedde, Benjamin Rabaud, Flavia Zraick

The premature failure of polyethylene pipes in contact with high chlorine and chlorine dioxide, used as residual disinfectants in drinking water distribution, remains an area of concern for water companies particularly in regions where temperatures are regularly or seasonally high. Multiple factors can amplify the...

2016 Berlin : Comparison between stress rupture test and hot water circulation test considering actual operating condition of PE pipes for hot water application

Author(s) : Takehiro Fujii, Kazuhisa Igawa, Hidekazu Honma, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura

The hydrostatic stress rupture test has been conventionally conducted as a good method of the lifetime evaluation. The hot water circulation test which is reflected to the actual operating condition is also useful method. The correlations and differences between the two tests were examined. Compared with the...

2016 Berlin : Effect of different chlorinated media to PE pipe materials

Author(s) : Amaia Bastero, Márton Bredács, Andreas Frank

The effect of chlorinated water environment to plastic pipes has been intensively investigated in recent years and proved to affect the lifetime of plastic pipes. Since it is known that the use of the different disinfectants (ClO2, HClO/ClO- ) imply different degradation rates, understanding the conditions...

2016 Berlin : Fatigue crack growth resistance of polypropylene in chlorinated water at different temperatures

Author(s) : Joerg Fischer, Patrick R. Bradler, Reinhold W. Lang, Gernot M. Wallner

The present paper aims to study the crack growth resistance of a black-pigmented polypropylene pipe grade when exposed to elevated temperatures and various environmental media (air, deionized water, ionized water with a specific chloride content, and chlorinated water) under the simultaneous application of cyclic...

2016 Berlin : Implementation of a new chlorine dioxide device for accelerated aging of polyolefin pipe materials

Author(s) : Márton Bredács, Anita Redhead, Andreas Frank, Amaia Bastero, Gerald Pinter

To maintain the high quality of potable water chlorine based disinfectants are frequently dosed into the drinking water network. Considering the oxidative nature of these species their long-term impact on the aging of polyolefin pipes is a matter of interest. In this study four polyolefin pipe grades were objected to...

2016 Berlin : Investigations on the behavior of PE100 grades in contact with chlorine dioxide

Author(s) : Herbert Terwyen, Roberto de Palo, Manuel Sanchez

New standards in Italy legally require that chlorine dioxide is used as a disinfectant in any new installation that treat water for human consumption. Chlorine dioxide is preferred to other disinfectants when surface water or water from rivers is used for drinking water supply and particularly Southern European...

2016 Berlin : Less is more: polypropylene materials for sewerage & drainage pipes with reduced energy and carbon footprints

Author(s) : Jeroen Wassenaar

The environmental impact in terms of global warming potentials (GWP) and nonrenewable energy demand (NRED) of sewerage & drainage pipes based on PP-MD, PP-HM, PP-B, and concrete has been assessed using life cycle analysis methodology. It can be concluded that PP-MD and PP-HM materials are able to significantly lower...

Members of the Association

BOREALISBOROUGEFormosa Plastics CorporationINEOS O&PIRPCKazanorgsintez PJSCKorea Petrochemical IND. Co., LTD (KPIC)LyondellBasellPetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical CompanyPRIME POLYMERSABICSCG Chemicals & Thai PolyethyleneSinopecTASNEE
Webinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless TechnologyWebinar : Benefits of PE100+ Material and their use in Trenchless Technology

On march 10th, was held the PE 100+ ASSOCIATION first webinar. The webinar was a great success and attracted a large audience. 

TOP