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Risk Assessment of Non-Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) in potable water

 

Dr Ruediger Liske, Dr Tobias Eltze, Dr Tania Weyland, Marie-Laure Bertet

# 2021 Amsterdam

The migration of NIAS (Non-Intentionally Added Substances) into potable water is a recurring topic for the distribution of cold and warm drinking water and related materialsindustry. These substances are chemical compounds that are present in drinking water contact materials but have not been added during the production process. Erik Arvin from the Technical University of Denmark identified a series of migrating organic substances as degradation products of the essential additives included in the polymer. The identity of these migrating compounds was published in 2000 and they are known since then as Arvin substances #1 to #10. Other NIAS are also present in polymer materials. Antioxidants are used in polyolefins to stabilize polymers against processing and thermal stress. Simultaneous use of primary and secondary antioxidants, such as hindered phenol and phosphite, has a synergistic effect and allows a better process stabilization with less total amount of additives required. Secondary phosphite antioxidants are suspected of releasing the phenol(s) attached to the phosphorous atom with the formation of the corresponding phosphate. The nature of the phenol(s) and phosphate depends on the chemical structure of the selected phosphite and must be toxicologically assessed as potential NIAS on a case by case basis. Due to the technical function of a market standard secondary antioxidant (phosphite class; CAS No. 31570-04-4) as a polymer stabilizer, the following degradation products can be formed under common extrusion conditions: 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (CAS-No.: 96-76-4, Arvin substance #4) through hydrolysis and the oxidized form of the phosphite, Tris-(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate (CAS-No.: 95906-11-9). In accordance to the requirements of Article 10 of the European Drinking Water Directive, these degradation products must be assessed, and the safe use must be confirmed for the respective application. BASF performed migration experiments of primary and secondary antioxidants in chlorinated water in accordance to European Standard EN 12873 to measure the amount of degradation substances in drinking water migrating out of pipes in hot water followed by a sound evaluation of the toxicological properties of the substances identified.

Related keywords : Drinking Water, Antioxidant, NIAS, Degradation Products, Sustainability.
Please note that the whole article content is available on PPCA website only

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