Young, Thomas, Marshall
# 1988 Bath
Within the Water Industry in England and Wales, there is an estimated length of 295,000 km of water main, much of which was laid in unlined cast iron prior to 1940. Subsequently, asbestos cement, UPVC and cement lined cast/ductile iron has been uscd. It is kn-that a substantial number of customers receive a less than satisfactory water service due to poor water quality, low pressure and interruptions to supply. This is largely caused by tuberculation and/or a build-up of deposits on the inside at the cast iron mains, together with the ever present problem or leakage through joints with ineffective seals.