What is electrofusion?
Electrofusion is a simple method of joining PE pipes in circumstances where butt fusion is not practicable, such as where valves, elbows, and tees must be added. Prefabricated fittings are used, incorporating an electrical heating coil which melts the plastic of both the fitting and the pipe, causing them to fuse together.
The characteristics of the fitting to be welded, such as the fusion time, are registered via a barcode on the fitting. An electrofusion control unit (ECU) supplies the electrical energy necessary to heat the coil. When the coil is energised, the material adjacent to it melts and forms an expanding pool which comes into contact with the surface of the pipe. The continued introduction of heat energy causes the pipe surface to melt and a mixing of pipe melt and fitting melt takes place; this is vital to produce a good weld. Following the termination of the heat cycle, the fitting and the pipe are left to cool and the melted material solidifies to form a sound joint.
Hot and cold zones, sometimes called melt and freeze zones, are formed after energising the coil. The length of these zones is particularly important. Each zone ensures that fusion is controlled to a precise length of the socket of the fitting and that the melt pressure is also controlled throughout the entire jointing process. The precisely controlled pitch and positioning of the coil in relation to the inner surface of the socket ensures uniform heat distribution.
The basic fusion parameters: temperature, pressure and time, are controlled by the ECU which is programmed to establish these parameters from the barcode read from the fitting itself. The ECU also provides a permanent record of the procedure followed.
Compact ECUs are now available that allow in-trench electrofusion welding to be carried out safely by just one-man.
The effectiveness of electrofusion depends on attention to preparation of the jointing surfaces and ensuring that the surfaces to be welded have satisfactory contact during the welding and cooling cycles. The pipe surfaces to be fused need to be scraped to remove the surface oxidation layer prior to fusion. Pipe clamps or other approved methods of restraining, aligning and rerounding the pipes during the fusion cycle should be used.
To prepare the jointing surfaces the pipe surface must be scraped with an appropriate pipe scraper, as recommended by the pipe or fitting manufacturer, to remove the entire surface of the pipe over the area indicated, to a depth of approximately 0.3mm. Metal files, rasps, emery paper etc are not suitable end preparation tools. Following scraping the scraped surface must be wiped with an authorised Ispropanol impregnated pipewipe, as recommended by the pipe or fitting manufacturer, to remove any dust residue. Methylated spirits, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or other solvents are not recommended for wiping the scraped surface. The prepared surfaces must be completely dry before proceeding.
The resulting joint, when properly made, is as strong as the original pipe and can withstand all the loads applied during routine installation and operation.
ISO 12176-2:2000 Plastics pipes and fittings - Equipment for fusion jointing polyethylene systems - Part 2: Electrofusion